A review of evidence supporting the American Academy of Pediatrics recommendation for prescribing cephalosporin antibiotics for penicillin-allergic patients
ABSTRACT The American Academy of Pediatrics, evidence-based guidelines endorse the use of cephalosporin antibiotics for patients with reported allergies to penicillin, for the treatment of acute bacterial sinusitis and acute otitis media. Many physicians, however, remain reluctant to prescribe such agents. Although such concern is understandable, lack of consistent data regarding exactly what constitutes an initial penicillin-allergic reaction and subsequent cross-sensitivity to cephalosporins may be preventing many patients from receiving optimal antibiotic therapy. This article reviews evidence in support of the American Academy of Pediatrics recommendation. Included is an examination of the types and incidence of reactions to penicillins and cephalosporins; the frequency of cross-reactivity between these 2 groups of agents; experimental and clinical studies that suggest that side chain-specific antibodies predominate in the immune response to cephalosporins, thereby explaining the lack of cross-sensitivity between most cephalosporins and penicillins; the role of skin testing; and the risks of anaphylaxis. Specific recommendations for the treatment of patients on the basis of their responses to previously prescribed agents are summarized.
Article: Drug and Vaccine Allergy[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Most children with a history of penicillin allergy are labeled allergic and denied treatment with penicillin and sometimes other beta-lactam antibiotics. Most of these children never were or are no longer allergic to penicillin. Penicillin skin testing and oral challenge can identify patients who are not currently allergic, allowing them to be treated with penicillin. Children with egg allergy are often denied influenza vaccination, because the vaccine contains a small amount of egg protein. However, recent studies have demonstrated that children with even severe egg allergy can safely receive the vaccine, reducing their risk of the morbidity and mortality associated with influenza. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America 11/2014; 35(1). DOI:10.1016/j.iac.2014.09.013 · 2.22 Impact Factor
Article: Pathogenesis of Nasal Polyposis.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) is a complex inflammatory condition that affects a large proportion of the population world-wide and is associated with high cost of management and significant morbidity. Yet, there is a lack of population-based epidemiologic studies using current definitions of CRSwNP, and the mechanisms that drive pathogenesis in this disease remain unclear. In this review, we summarize the current evidence for the plethora of factors that likely contribute to CRSwNP pathogenesis. Defects in the innate function of the airway epithelial barrier, including diminished expression of antimicrobial products and loss of barrier integrity, combined with colonization by fungi and bacteria likely play a critical role in the development of chronic inflammation in CRSwNP. This chronic inflammation is characterized by elevated expression of many key inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, including IL-5, thymic stromal lymphopoietin and CCL11, that help to initiate and perpetuate this chronic inflammatory response. Together, these factors likely combine to drive the influx of a variety of immune cells, including eosinophils, mast cells, group 2 innate lymphoid cells and lymphocytes, which participate in the chronic inflammatory response within the nasal polyps. Importantly, however, future studies are needed to demonstrate the necessity and sufficiency of these potential drivers of disease in CRSwNP. In addition to the development of new tools and models to aid mechanistic studies, the field of CRSwNP research also needs the type of robust epidemiologic data that has served the asthma community so well. Given the high prevalence, costs and morbidity, there is a great need for continued research into CRS that could facilitate the development of novel therapeutic strategies to improve treatment for patients who suffer from this disease.Clinical & Experimental Allergy 12/2014; 45(2). DOI:10.1111/cea.12472 · 4.32 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: It was originally thought that, as all betalactams share a four-member ring, they would cross-react, and so the classical recommendation was for allergic patients to avoid all betalactams. However, later studies found that some individuals selectively responded to one betalactam only and tolerated others. This was shown to be more frequent than initially thought, and this finding has led to a change from the initial recommendations of complete avoidance. Selective responses to amoxicillin are mainly due to recognition of the side chain structure, making benzylpenicillin a safe alternative. These amoxicillin-selective responders comprise up to 55 and 90 % of patients with immediate allergic reactions to amoxicillin and amoxicillin-clavulanic, respectively. Additionally, more than 85 % of penicillin-allergic patients can tolerate cephalosporins with different R1 side chains, decreasing to 65 % if the side chain is identical. It is known that third and fourth generation cephalosporins are well tolerated by penicillin-allergic patients, probably because their chemical structures differ more from penicillins that those from the first generation. In patients with IgE-mediated allergic reactions to cephalosporins, penicillins can be an alternative treatment in up to 75 % of cases. Moreover, 40 % of patients primarily sensitized to a given cephalosporin also react to others, which might be because some cephaloporins have the same (ceftriaxone and cefotaxime) or very similar (ceftriaxone and cefuroxime) side chain structures. Finally, carbapenems and monobactams are good alternative for patients with penicillin and/or cephalosporin allergy because cross-reactivity occurs in06/2015; 2(2). DOI:10.1007/s40521-015-0050-4