Comparison of oxycodone and hydrocodone for the treatment of acute pain associated with fractures: a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial.
ABSTRACT Previous studies have demonstrated the efficacy of oxycodone and hydrocodone for the treatment of acute pain. However, to the best of the authors' knowledge, no previous reports have compared the efficacies of these commonly prescribed agents.
To compare the efficacies of oxycodone and hydrocodone for the treatment of acute pain associated with fractures in emergency department (ED) patients.
This prospective, double-blind, randomized, controlled trial was conducted at an urban trauma center with an annual census of 65,000. Eligible participants included ED patients over the age of 12 years with fractures who consented to participate. Subjects were randomized to receive either oxycodone (5 mg orally [po]) with acetaminophen, or hydrocodone (5 mg po) with acetaminophen. Measurements included demographic information; pain scores on a verbal numeric rating scale at baseline and at 30 and 60 minutes; vital signs at baseline and at 30 and 60 minutes; and adverse effects. Ninety-five-percent confidence intervals (95% CIs) constructed about means and proportions were used to assess differences between the oxycodone and hydrocodone groups in analgesic efficacy and side effects.
Seventy-three subjects were randomized to receive oxycodone or hydrocodone. Sixty-seven subjects completed the ED study period (n = 35, oxycodone; n = 32, hydrocodone). There was no difference between the two groups in age, weight, gender, ethnicity, diagnoses, baseline pain scores, or vital signs. Patients in both groups had pain relief from baseline to 30 minutes (oxycodone mean change 3.7, 95% CI = 2.9 to 4.6; hydrocodone mean change 2.5, 95% CI = 1.7 to 3.3), and from baseline to 60 minutes (oxycodone mean change 4.4, 95% CI = 3.2 to 5.6; hydrocodone mean change 3.0, 95% CI = 2.1 to 3.9). There was no difference in pain between the patients treated with oxycodone and hydrocodone at 30 minutes (mean difference between groups -0.6, 95% CI = -1.8 to 0.5) or at 60 minutes (mean difference -0.5, 95% CI = -2.0 to 1.0). There was no difference between the groups in nausea, vomiting, itching, or drowsiness; however, the hydrocodone patients had a higher incidence of constipation (oxycodone 0%, hydrocodone 21%, difference in proportions 21%, 95% CI = 3% to 39% more with hydrocodone).
Treatment with acetaminophen and either oxycodone, 5 mg po, or hydrocodone, 5 mg po, resulted in pain relief among ED patients with acute fractures, and there was no difference between the two agents at 30 and 60 minutes. Adverse effect profiles were similar, with the exception of a higher incidence of subsequent constipation with the use of hydrocodone. These results suggest that oxycodone and hydrocodone have similarly potent analgesic effects in the first hour of treatment for ED patients with acute fractures.
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study is to determine what factors influence emergency physicians' decisions to prescribe an opioid analgesic for 3 common, painful conditions. We developed items thought to influence the decision to prescribe an opioid analgesic through a review of the literature, expert consultation, and interviews with practicing emergency physicians. We developed a baseline vignette and items expected to influence the decision for each of the 3 conditions: migraine, back pain, and ankle fracture. We surveyed 650 physicians randomly selected from the American College of Emergency Physicians. The influence of individual items was explored through a univariate analysis of the response distribution. Patterns were assessed by analytically creating scales. We received responses from 398 (63%) of the 634 eligible physicians. Physicians' likelihoods of prescribing an opioid showed marked variability, with at least 10% of physicians saying they were unlikely and 10% of physicians saying they were likely to prescribe for each condition. Physician responses to individual pieces of clinical information, such as the patient requesting "something strong" for the pain, were also highly variable, with at least 10% of physicians saying they would be negatively influenced by this request and at least 10% saying they would be positively influenced by it. Even when faced with identical case scenarios, physicians' decisions to prescribe opioid analgesics are highly variable. Moreover, the same clinical information, such as a patient requesting a strong analgesic, changes the likelihood of prescribing opioids in opposite directions for different physicians.Annals of emergency medicine 05/2004; 43(4):483-93. · 4.23 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Review of emergency department pain management practices demonstrates pain treatment inconsistency and inadequacy that extends across all demographic groups. This inconsistency and inadequacy appears to stem from a multitude of potentially remediable practical and attitudinal barriers that include (1) a lack of educational emphasis on pain management practices in nursing and medical school curricula and postgraduate training programs; (2) inadequate or nonexistent clinical quality management programs that evaluate pain management; (3) a paucity of rigorous studies of populations with special needs that improve pain management in the emergency department, particularly in geriatric and pediatric patients; (4) clinicians' attitudes toward opioid analgesics that result in inappropriate diagnosis of drug-seeking behavior and inappropriate concern about addiction, even in patients who have obvious acutely painful conditions and request pain relief; (5) inappropriate concerns about the safety of opioids compared with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs that result in their underuse (opiophobia); (6) unappreciated cultural and sex differences in pain reporting by patients and interpretation of pain reporting by providers; and (7) bias and disbelief of pain reporting according to racial and ethnic stereotyping. This article reviews the literature that describes the prevalence and roots of oligoanalgesia in emergency medicine. It also discusses the regulatory efforts to address the problem and their effect on attitudes within the legal community.Annals of emergency medicine 05/2004; 43(4):494-503. · 4.23 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The analgesic efficacy of a hydrocodone-acetaminophen combination, a codeine-acetaminophen combination, a codeine-APC (aspirin, phenacetin, and caffeine) combination, and a placebo was evaluated in outpatients who had moderate or severe pain after the surgical removal of impacted third molars. Each of the active medications had a significant effect on essentially all measures of total and peak analgesia; they did not differ significantly on any measure of analgesia. Adverse effects were transitory and, in general, appear to have been related to the centrally acting component of each combination analgesic.Journal of oral surgery (American Dental Association: 1965) 03/1981; 39(2):108-12.