Article

Drastic down-regulation of Kruppel-like factor 4 expression is critical in human gastric cancer development and progression

Department of Gastrointestinal Medical Oncology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA.
Cancer Research (Impact Factor: 9.28). 05/2005; 65(7):2746-54. DOI: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-04-3619
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) is highly expressed in epithelial tissues such as the gut and skin. However, the role of KLF4 in human gastric cancer development and progression is unknown. Here we show that KLF4 protein expression was decreased or lost in primary tumors and, in particular, lymph node metastases when compared with that in normal gastric mucosa. Moreover, loss of KLF4 expression in the primary tumors was significantly associated with poor survival, and also an independent prognostic marker in a multivariate analysis. Consistently, most human gastric cancer cell lines exhibited loss of or a substantial decrease in KLF4 expression at both RNA and protein levels. Enforced restoration of KLF4 expression resulted in marked cell growth inhibition in vitro and significantly attenuated tumor growth and total abrogation of metastasis in an orthotopic animal model of gastric cancer. Mechanism studies indicated that promoter hypermethylation and hemizygous deletion contributed to the down-regulation of KLF4 expression and the induction of apoptosis contributed to the antitumor activity of KLF4. Collectively, our data provide first clinical and casual evidence and potential mechanism that the alteration of KLF4 expression plays a critical role in gastric cancer development and progression.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Masashi Kanai, Jul 04, 2015
0 Followers
 · 
168 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background:Growing evidence suggests that miR-29a has an important role in regulating tumourigenesis and development of various types of cancer. However, the role and the underlying mechanism of miR-29a in colorectal cancer (CRC) remain largely unknown.Methods:MiR-29a targeted gene was identified by the luciferase assay and western blot. MiR-29a function was analysed by invasion assays and the orthotopic transplantation mouse model. The miR-29a pathway was assayed by real-time PCR, western blot and chip analysis.Results:KLF4 was identified as a direct target gene of miR-29a. MiR-29a promoted CRC cell invasion, which was blocked by re-expression of KLF4. In addition, MMP2 was identified as a novel direct target of KLF4. Both miR-29a overexpression and KLF4 knockdown promoted MMP2 expression but inhibited E-cadherin expression. Furthermore, clinical data indicated that both miR-29a high expression and KLF4 mRNA low expression were associated with metastasis and poor prognosis in CRC patients, and KLF4 protein expression was inversely correlated with MMP2 but positively correlated with E-cad protein expression.Conclusion:Increased expression of miR-29a promoted CRC metastasis by regulating MMP2/E-cad through direct targeting KLF4, which highlights the potential of the miR-29a inhibitor as a novel agent against CRC metastasis.British Journal of Cancer advance online publication, 26 November 2013; doi:10.1038/bjc.2013.724 www.bjcancer.com.
    British Journal of Cancer 11/2013; 110(2). DOI:10.1038/bjc.2013.724 · 4.82 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: MCC-555 is a novel PPARα/γ dual ligand of the thiazolidinedione class and was recently developed as an anti-diabetic drug with unique properties. MCC-555 also has anti-proliferative activity through growth inhibition and apoptosis induction in several cancer cell types. Our group has shown that MCC-555 targets several proteins in colorectal tumorigenesis including nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-activated gene (NAG-1) which plays an important role in chemoprevention responsible for chemopreventive compounds. NAG-1 is a member of the TGF-β superfamily and is involved in tumor progression and development; however, NAG-1's roles in pancreatic cancer have not been studied. In this report, we found that MCC-555 alters not only NAG-1 expression, but also p21 and cyclin D1 expression. NAG-1 and p21 expression was not blocked by PPARγ-specific antagonist GW9662, suggesting that MCC-555-induced NAG-1 and p21 expression is independent of PPARγ activation. However, decreasing cyclin D1 by MCC-555 seems to be affected by PPARγ activation. Further, we found that the GC box located in the NAG-1 promoter play an important role in NAG-1 transactivation by MCC-555. Subsequently, we screened several transcription factors that may bind to the GC box region in the NAG-1 promoter and found that KLF4 potentially binds to this region. Expression of KLF4 precedes NAG-1 and p21 expression in the presence of MCC-555, whereas blocking KLF4 expression using specific KLF4 siRNA showed that both NAG-1 and p21 expression by MCC-555 was blocked. In conclusion, MCC-555's actions on anti-proliferation involve both PPARγ-dependent and -independent pathways, thereby enhancing anti-tumorigenesis in pancreatic cancer cells.
    Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 06/2012; 263(2):225-32. DOI:10.1016/j.taap.2012.06.014 · 3.63 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) is a zinc finger transcription factor that functions as an oncogene or tumor suppressor in a highly tissue-specific cell-dependent manner. However, its precise role in breast cancer and metastasis remains unclear. Here, we show that transient adenoviral expression of KLF4 in the 4T1 orthotopic mammary cancer model significantly attenuated primary tumor growth as well as micrometastases to the lungs and liver. These results can be attributed, in part, to decreased proliferation and increased apoptosis. Further supporting a tumor-suppressive role for KLF4 in the breast, we found that KLF4 expression is lost in a mouse model of HER2/NEU/ERBB2-positive breast cancer. To determine whether enforced KLF4 expression could alter tumor latency in these mice, we used a doxycycline-inducible expression model in the context of the MMTV-Neu transgene. Surprisingly, tumors that developed in this model also lost KLF4 expression, suggesting negative selection for sustained expression. We have previously reported that KLF4 inhibits epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a preliminary step in metastatic progression. Overexpression of KLF4 in 4T1 cells led to a significant reduction in the expression of Snail, a key mediator of EMT and metastasis. Conversely, KLF4 silencing increased Snail expression in the nontransformed MCF-10A cell line. Collectively, these data demonstrate the first functional, in vivo evidence for KLF4 as a tumor suppressor in breast cancer cells. Furthermore, our findings suggest an inhibitory role for KLF4 during breast cancer metastases that functions, in part, through repression of Snail.
    Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.) 07/2011; 13(7):601-10. DOI:10.1593/neo.11260 · 5.40 Impact Factor