Transformations of Leadership

Harthill Consulting, Hewelsfield, England.
Harvard business review (Impact Factor: 1.27). 05/2005; 83(4):66-76, 133.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Most developmental psychologists agree that what differentiates one leader from another is not so much philosophy of leadership, personality, or style of management. Rather, it's internal "action logic"--how a leader interprets the surroundings and reacts when his or her power or safety is challenged. Relatively few leaders, however, try to understand their action logic, and fewer still have explored the possibility of changing it. They should, because leaders who undertake this voyage of personal understanding and development can transform not only their own capabilities but also those of their companies. The authors draw on 25 years of consulting experience and collaboration with psychologist Susanne Cook-Greuter to present a typology of leadership based on the way managers personally make sense of the world around them. Rooke and Torbert classify leaders into seven distinct actionlogic categories: Opportunists, Diplomats, Experts, Achievers, Individualists, Strategists, and Alchemists-the first three associated with below-average performance, the latter four with medium to high performance. These leadership styles are not fixed, the authors say, and executives who are willing to work at developing themselves and becoming more self-aware can almost certainly move toward one of the more effective action logics. A Diplomat, for instance, can succeed through hard work and self-reflection at transforming himself into a Strategist. Few people may become Alchemists, but many will have the desire and potential to become Individualists and Strategists. Corporations that help their executives and leadership teams to examine their action logics can reap rich rewards.

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    • "These are the capacities that have been found to evolve at postconventional levels of development (Cook-Greuter, 1999; Hewlett, 2004; Kegan, 1994; Miller & Cook-Greuter, 1994). Now more than ever, the world needs leaders who operate from post-conventional consciousness because of their transformational capacity, agility, creativity, flexibility and mature insight (Barker & Torbert, 2011; Cook-Greuter, 2004; Joiner & Josephs, 2007; Kegan & Lahey, 2009; Rooke & Torbert, 2005). This research explored whether development to post-conventional consciousness could be facilitated within Australian community leadership programs. "
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    ABSTRACT: This study explored the impact on consciousness development of participating in either standard or enhanced community leadership programs (CLPs) in Australia. Aligned with Manners' and Durkin's (2000) conceptual framework, CLPs offer experiences that are interpersonal, emotionally engaging, personally salient and structurally disequilibriating for later conventional consciousness stages. Enhanced CLPs include additional psychosocial challenges. Participants were 335 adults who took part in one of 4 standard CLPs, 7 enhanced CLPs and 2 (control) management programs. Modal program length was 10 months. Standard and enhanced CLPs were successful in facilitating consciousness development (as measured by the Washington University Sentence Completion Test—WUSCT) within the conventional stages. However, enhanced CLPs were significantly more successful in triggering post-conventional development, and specifically in those participants who had a preference for Sensing (as measured by the Myers–Briggs Type Indicator—MBTI). Enhanced CLPs could provide a model for other development programs aimed at promoting post-conventional consciousness.
    The Leadership Quarterly 12/2014; 26(2). DOI:10.1016/j.leaqua.2014.11.007 · 2.70 Impact Factor
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    • "Third, this study is based on the developmental perspective , which has certain limits. Theories of adult development tend to assign post-conventional stages greater value in terms of abilities, value system and vision than conventional and pre-conventional stages (Kegan 1994; Cook-Greuter 2004; Rooke and Torbert 2005). Since post-conventional stages comprise approximately 15 % of the adult population, this theory may appear elitist for some audiences. "
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this paper is to explore how the various stages of consciousness development of top managers can influence, in practical terms, their abilities in and commitment to environmental leadership in different types of SMEs. A case study based on 63 interviews carried out in 15 industrial SMEs showed that the organizations that displayed the most environmental management practices were mostly run by managers at a post-conventional stage of consciousness development. Conversely, the SMEs that displayed less sustainable environmental management practices were all run by managers at conventional stages of development. Drawing upon diverse examples of environmental leadership, this paper analyzes the reasons why the stages of post-conventional consciousness development of top managers seem to foster corporate greening in SMEs. The study also sheds light on the key values and abilities associated with both environmental leadership and the upper-stages of consciousness development, which include a broader and systemic perspective, long-range focus, integration of conflicting goals, collaboration with stakeholders, complexity management, collaborative learning, among others.
    Journal of Business Ethics 09/2013; 123(3):363-383. DOI:10.1007/s10551-013-1845-5 · 1.33 Impact Factor
    • "In the course of the last two decades, scholars of organisational behaviour, numerous management approaches and organisational theories have emphasised the importance of active participation in activities not listed as specific responsibilities in job descriptions (Katz, 1964; Ouchi, 1981), sharing of knowledge and suggestions (Boiral, 2002; Garvin, 1991), prosocial behaviours (Brief and Motowildo, 1986; Ramus and Killmer, 2007) and personal development (Kuhnert and Lewis, 1987; Rooke and Torbert, 2005). Special focus has been placed on employees' actions, which extend beyond the formal requirements of the job. "
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    ABSTRACT: Organisational citizenship behaviours (OCBs) have been the topic of much research attempting to understand the antecedents and impacts of these behaviours on organisational effectiveness. This study examines the role of emotional intelligence (EI) on employees involvement in OCBs. Respondents (N = 185) from six organisations completed EI and OCBs questionnaires. The results of this study indicated significant differences between the employees with high and low EI for the involvement in OCBs. Further, employees with high EI were more involved in OCBs such as individual initiative, personal industry and loyal boosterism. There was no significant difference between high and low emotional intelligent employees on interpersonal helping behaviour. Implications and limitations of this study are discussed and avenues of future research are identified.
    International Journal of Indian Culture and Business Management 01/2012; 5(4):458 - 471. DOI:10.1504/IJICBM.2012.047415
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