Investigation of limiting metabolic steps in the utilization of xylose by recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae using metabolic engineering.
ABSTRACT A Saccharomyces cerevisiae screening strain was designed by combining multiple genetic modifications known to improve xylose utilization with the primary objective of enhancing xylose growth and fermentation in xylose isomerase (XI)-expressing strains. Strain TMB 3045 was obtained by expressing the XI gene from Thermus thermophilus in a strain in which the GRE3 gene coding for aldose reductase was deleted, and the genes encoding xylulokinase (XK) and the enzymes of the non-oxidative pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) [transaldolase (TAL), transketolase (TKL), ribose 5-phosphate ketol-isomerase (RKI) and ribulose 5-phosphate epimerase (RPE)] were overexpressed. A xylose-growing and fermenting strain (TMB 3050) was derived from TMB 3045 by repeated cultivation on xylose medium. Despite its low XI activity, TMB 3050 was capable of aerobic xylose growth and anaerobic ethanol production at 30 degrees C. The aerobic xylose growth rate reached 0.17 l/h when XI was replaced with xylose reductase (XR) and xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH) genes expressed from a multicopy plasmid, demonstrating that the screening system was functional. Xylose growth had not previously been detected in strains in which the PPP genes were not overexpressed or when overexpressing the PPP genes but having XR and XDH genes chromosomally integrated. This demonstrates the necessity to simultaneously increase the conversion of xylose to xylulose and the metabolic steps downstream of xylulose for efficient xylose utilization in S. cerevisiae.
Article: Arabinose and xylose fermentation by recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing a fungal pentose utilization pathway.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Sustainable and economically viable manufacturing of bioethanol from lignocellulose raw material is dependent on the availability of a robust ethanol producing microorganism, able to ferment all sugars present in the feedstock, including the pentose sugars L-arabinose and D-xylose. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a robust ethanol producer, but needs to be engineered to achieve pentose sugar fermentation. A new recombinant S. cerevisiae strain expressing an improved fungal pathway for the utilization of L-arabinose and D-xylose was constructed and characterized. The new strain grew aerobically on L-arabinose and D-xylose as sole carbon sources. The activities of the enzymes constituting the pentose utilization pathway(s) and product formation during anaerobic mixed sugar fermentation were characterized. Pentose fermenting recombinant S. cerevisiae strains were obtained by the expression of a pentose utilization pathway of entirely fungal origin. During anaerobic fermentation the strain produced biomass and ethanol. L-arabitol yield was 0.48 g per gram of consumed pentose sugar, which is considerably less than previously reported for D-xylose reductase expressing strains co-fermenting L-arabinose and D-xylose, and the xylitol yield was 0.07 g per gram of consumed pentose sugar.Microbial Cell Factories 02/2009; 8:40. · 3.55 Impact Factor
Article: Cross-reactions between engineered xylose and galactose pathways in recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Overexpression of the PGM2 gene encoding phosphoglucomutase (Pgm2p) has been shown to improve galactose utilization both under aerobic and under anaerobic conditions. Similarly, xylose utilization has been improved by overexpression of genes encoding xylulokinase (XK), enzymes from the non-oxidative pentose phosphate pathway (non-ox PPP) and deletion of the endogenous aldose reductase GRE3 gene in engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains carrying either fungal or bacterial xylose pathways. In the present study, we investigated how the combination of these traits affect xylose and galactose utilization in the presence or absence of glucose in S. cerevisiae strains engineered with the xylose reductase (XR)-xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH) pathway. In the absence of PGM2 overexpression, the combined overexpression of XK, the non-ox PPP and deletion of the GRE3 gene significantly delayed aerobic growth on galactose, whereas no difference was observed between the control strain and the xylose-engineered strain when the PGM2 gene was overexpressed. Under anaerobic conditions, the overexpression of the PGM2 gene increased the ethanol yield and the xylose consumption rate in medium containing xylose as the only carbon source. The possibility of Pgm2p acting as a xylose isomerase (XI) could be excluded by measuring the XI activity in both strains. The additional copy of the PGM2 gene also resulted in a shorter fermentation time during the co-consumption of galactose and xylose. However, the effect was lost upon addition of glucose to the growth medium. PGM2 overexpression was shown to benefit xylose and galactose fermentation, alone and in combination. In contrast, galactose fermentation was impaired in the engineered xylose-utilizing strain harbouring extra copies of the non-ox PPP genes and a deletion of the GRE3 gene, unless PGM2 was overexpressed. These cross-reactions are of particular relevance for the fermentation of mixed sugars from lignocellulosic feedstock.Biotechnology for Biofuels 01/2010; 3:19. · 6.09 Impact Factor
Article: Isolation of xylose isomerases by sequence- and function-based screening from a soil metagenomic library.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Xylose isomerase (XI) catalyses the isomerisation of xylose to xylulose in bacteria and some fungi. Currently, only a limited number of XI genes have been functionally expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the microorganism of choice for lignocellulosic ethanol production. The objective of the present study was to search for novel XI genes in the vastly diverse microbial habitat present in soil. As the exploitation of microbial diversity is impaired by the ability to cultivate soil microorganisms under standard laboratory conditions, a metagenomic approach, consisting of total DNA extraction from a given environment followed by cloning of DNA into suitable vectors, was undertaken. A soil metagenomic library was constructed and two screening methods based on protein sequence similarity and enzyme activity were investigated to isolate novel XI encoding genes. These two screening approaches identified the xym1 and xym2 genes, respectively. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses revealed that the genes shared 67% similarity and belonged to different bacterial groups. When xym1 and xym2 were overexpressed in a xylA-deficient Escherichia coli strain, similar growth rates to those in which the Piromyces XI gene was expressed were obtained. However, expression in S. cerevisiae resulted in only one-fourth the growth rate of that obtained for the strain expressing the Piromyces XI gene. For the first time, the screening of a soil metagenomic library in E. coli resulted in the successful isolation of two active XIs. However, the discrepancy between XI enzyme performance in E. coli and S. cerevisiae suggests that future screening for XI activity from soil should be pursued directly using yeast as a host.Biotechnology for Biofuels 01/2011; 4:9. · 6.09 Impact Factor