Neuroanatomic correlates of psychopathologic components of major depressive disorder.

Departments of Psychiatry and Radiology, Department of Neuroscience, NY State Psychiatric Institute, Columbia University, 1051 Riverside Drive, New York, NY 10032, USA.
Archives of General Psychiatry (Impact Factor: 13.75). 05/2005; 62(4):397-408. DOI: 10.1001/archpsyc.62.4.397
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) is widely used to measure the severity of depression in mood disorders. Total HDRS score correlates with brain metabolism as measured by fludeoxyglucose F 18 ([(18)F]-FDG) positron emission tomography. The HDRS comprises distinct symptom clusters that may be associated with different patterns of regional brain glucose metabolism.
To examine associations between HDRS component psychopathologic clusters and resting glucose cerebral metabolism assessed by [(18)F]-FDG positron emission tomography. Patients We evaluated 298 drug-free patients who met the DSM-III-R criteria for major depressive disorder.
Five principal components were extracted from the 24-item HDRS for all subjects and ProMax rotated: psychic depression, loss of motivated behavior, psychosis, anxiety, and sleep disturbance. The [(18)F]-FDG scans were acquired in a subgroup of 43 drug-free patients in twelve 5-minute frames. Voxel-level correlation maps were generated with HDRS total and factor scores.
Total HDRS score correlated positively with activity in a large bilateral ventral cortical and subcortical region that included limbic, thalamic, and basal ganglia structures. Distinct correlation patterns were found with the 3 individual HDRS factors. Psychic depression correlated positively with metabolism in the cingulate gyrus, thalamus, and basal ganglia. Sleep disturbance correlated positively with metabolism in limbic structures and basal ganglia. Loss of motivated behavior was negatively associated with parietal and superior frontal cortical areas.
Different brain regions correlate with discrete symptom components that compose the overall syndrome of major depression. Future studies should extend knowledge about specific regional networks by identifying responsible neurotransmitters related to specific psychopathologic components of mood disorders.


Available from: Kevin M Malone, Jun 09, 2015
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) show predominant negative blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) responses (NBRs) in regions of the default-mode network such as the pregenual anterior cingulate cortex, the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, and the posterior cingulate cortex. Patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) show emotional-cognitive disturbances, which have been associated with alterations within the default-mode network. However, it remains unclear whether these default-mode network alterations are related to abnormalities in NBRs. We therefore investigated neural activity in the default-mode network during different emotional tasks in patients with MDD in an event-related fMRI design. MDD patients showed significantly reduced NBRs in several regions of the default-mode network. Decreased NBRs in MDD patients correlated with depression severity and feelings of hopelessness. In sum, our findings demonstrate that default-mode network NBRs are reduced in MDD and modulate these patients' abnormally negative emotions.
    Neuropsychopharmacology: official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology 07/2008; 34(4):932-843. DOI:10.1038/npp.2008.81 · 7.83 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study compared diurnal variation in mood and regional cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (rCMRglc) in depressed and healthy subjects. Depressed and healthy subjects were investigated using [18F]-fluoro-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography scans during morning and evening wakefulness. All subjects completed subjective mood ratings at both times of day. Statistical parametric mapping was used to compare rCMRglc between the two groups across time of day. Depressed patients showed evening mood improvements compared with healthy subjects. Compared with healthy subjects, depressed patients showed smaller increases in rCMRglc during evening relative to morning wakefulness in lingual and fusiform cortices, midbrain reticular formation, and locus coeruleus and greater increases in rCMRglc in parietal and temporal cortices. Depressed patients had hypermetabolism in limbic-paralimbic regions and hypometabolism in frontal and parietal cortex at both times of day compared with healthy subjects. Variation in rCMRglc differs across times of day in depressed and healthy subjects. In depressed patients, evening mood improvements were associated with increased metabolic activity in ventral limbic-paralimbic, parietal, temporal, and frontal regions and in the cerebellum. This increased metabolic pattern during evening wakefulness may reflect partial normalization of primary and compensatory neural systems involved in affect production and regulation.
    Biological Psychiatry 10/2007; 62(5):438-45. DOI:10.1016/j.biopsych.2006.09.043 · 9.47 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a brain stimulation technique which had recently been investigated as a putative antidepressant intervention. However, there is little agreement about clinically useful predictors of rTMS outcome. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to determine whether specific biographical, clinical, and psychopathological parameters are associated with the antidepressant response to rTMS in a large sample of 70 depressive patients. We performed a logistic regression analysis in 70 patients with major depressive disorder treated with rTMS of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex testing the predictive value of various domains of the depression syndrome as well as the variables episode duration, degree of treatment resistance, and CORE criteria. Response was defined as a 50% reduction of the initial Hamilton score (HAMD). After two weeks of treatment, 21% of the patients showed a response to rTMS. The binary logistic regression model correctly assigned 86.7% of the responders and 96.4% of the non-responders to their final response group. In the model, a high level of sleep disturbances was a significant predictor for treatment response to rTMS. Also, a low score of treatment resistance and a short duration of episode were positive predictors. These findings provide new evidence that especially pronounced sleep disturbances may be a significant clinical predictor of a response to rTMS. Prospective rTMS studies are necessary to validate the predictive value of the derived model.
    Journal of Psychiatric Research 09/2007; 41(5):395-403. DOI:10.1016/j.jpsychires.2006.01.013 · 4.09 Impact Factor