Proinflammatory cytokine TNFalpha triggers cell death by inducing reactive oxygen species (ROS). These then inflict cytotoxicity through downstream activation of the JNK MAPK cascade. Yet the mechanisms by which ROS trigger JNK signaling have remained elusive. In a recent issue of Cell, Kamata et al. now provide one such mechanism.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: System requirements: World Wide Web browser and PDF reader. Mode of access: Avaliable through the Internet. Title from document title page. Includes abstract. Document formatted into pages: contains xiii, 116 p. Theses (Ph. D.)--Marshall University, 2006. Bibliography: p. 99-112.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hypoxia is a physiologically important endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress that is present in all solid tumors. Numerous clinical studies have shown that tumor hypoxia predicts for decreased local control, increased distant metastases, and decreased overall survival in a variety of human tumors. Hypoxia selects for tumors with an increased malignant phenotype and increases the metastatic potential of tumor cells. Tumor cells respond to hypoxia and ER stress through the activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR). The UPR is an adaptive response to increase cell survival during ER stress. XBP-1 is a critical transcriptional regulator of this process and is required for tumor growth. Pancreatic ER kinase (PKR-like ER kinase) regulates the translational branch of the UPR and is also important in the growth of tumors. Although the exact mechanism has yet to be elucidated, recent data suggest that the UPR affects tumor growth through protection from apoptosis and may influence angiogenic signaling pathways. Targeting various components of the UPR is a promising therapeutic strategy. Understanding the relationship between hypoxia, the UPR, and tumor growth is crucial to improving current cancer therapies.
Molecular Cancer Research 12/2005; 3(11):597-605. DOI:10.1158/1541-7786.MCR-05-0221 · 4.38 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: NF-kappaB is an inducible transcription factor that plays a role in the expression of over one hundred genes involved in immunity, inflammation, proliferation, and in defense against apoptosis. NF-kappaB has been known to be redox regulated for some time and is a direct target for oxidation that can affect its ability to bind to DNA. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been identified as second messengers in cells, and play a role in receptor signaling and posttranslation modification of signaling molecules. These posttranslation modifications include oxidations of critical cysteines to sulfenic acids or mixed disulfides, which can affect the activity of proteins. Many kinases involved in direct or indirect activation of NF-kappaB are affected by oxidants and therefore, have the potential to alter NF-kappaB activity. This review will provide a summary of the NF-kappaB family, their activation and regulation, followed by a summary of cytoplasmic and nuclear kinases in this pathway whose activity is affected by oxidants. Additionally, recent investigations have revealed that the JNK signaling pathway, which is known to be redox regulated, and pro-apoptotic, is inhibited by NF-kappaB signaling. The crosstalk of NF-kappaB with other signaling pathways is therefore critical for cellular fate, notably survival or cell death under oxidative conditions, and will also be reviewed.
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