The benefits of authoritative feeding style: Caregiver feeding style and children's food consumption patterns

Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, Children's Nutrition Research Center, 1100 Bates Street, Houston, TX 77030, USA.
Appetite (Impact Factor: 2.69). 05/2005; 44(2):243-9. DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2002.07.001
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This research tested the associations between caregiver feeding styles and children's food consumption patterns among African-American (AA) and Hispanic (H) caregivers and their preschool children. Participants were 231 caregivers (101 AA; 130 H) with children enrolled in Head Start. Caregivers completed questionnaires on authoritarian and authoritative feeding styles (Caregiver's Feeding Styles Questionnaire; CFSQ) and various aspects of children's food consumption patterns (availability of, feeding attempts for, and child's consumption of dairy, fruit, and vegetables). Simultaneous multiple regression analyses tested the unique contribution of feeding styles in predicting food consumption patterns. Authoritative feeding was positively associated whereas authoritarian feeding was negatively associated with the availability of fruit and vegetables. Authoritative feeding was also positively associated with attempts to get the child to eat dairy, fruit, and vegetables, and reported child consumption of dairy and vegetables. Authoritarian feeding was negatively associated with child's vegetable consumption. All results remained significant after controlling for child's gender and body mass index (BMI), and caregiver's ethnicity, BMI, and level of education. Overall, results provide evidence for the benefits of authoritative feeding and suggest that interventions to increase children's consumption of dairy, fruit, and vegetables should be targeted toward increasing caregivers' authoritative feeding behaviors.

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Available from: Heather Patrick, Oct 04, 2015
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    • "The measure of praise used in this study included mothers' positive comments about healthy eating behavior and praise of healthy foods in front of the child. Thus, less-frequent praise of healthy eating behavior for only children may reflect less focus on these topics that may be important for the development of healthy eating behaviors (Patrick et al., 2005; Stanek et al., 1990; Vereecken et al., 2004). Similarly, among youngest siblings, maternal support and praise may play a role in the pathway of association between younger sibling status and higher weight status. "
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    ABSTRACT: Birth order has been associated with childhood obesity. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to examine maternal feeding and child eating behaviors as underlying processes for increased weight status of only children and youngest siblings. Participants included 274 low-income 4-8 year old children and their mothers. The dyads completed a videotaped laboratory mealtime observation. Mothers completed the Caregiver's Feeding Styles Questionnaire and the Children's Eating Behavior Questionnaire. Child weight and height were measured using standardized procedures. Path analysis was used to examine associations of birth order, maternal feeding behaviors, child eating behavior, and child overweight/obese status. The association between only child status and greater likelihood of overweight/obesity was fully mediated by higher maternal Verbal Discouragement to eat and lower maternal Praise (all p values < 0.05). The association between youngest sibling status and greater likelihood of overweight/obesity was partially mediated by lower maternal Praise and lower child Food Fussiness (all p values < 0.05). Results provide support for our hypothesis that maternal control and support and child food acceptance are underlying pathways for the association between birth order and weight status. Future findings can help inform family-based programs by guiding family counseling and tailoring of recommendations for family mealtime interactions. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Appetite 05/2015; 92. DOI:10.1016/j.appet.2015.05.021 · 2.69 Impact Factor
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    • "A large body of evidence has demonstrated that effective parenting and supportive family interactions are associated with positive childhood outcomes, such as higher academic achievement, better psychosocial and emotional development , less disruptive child behaviours, fewer depressive symptoms and higher self-esteem (Dornbusch et al., 1987; Lamborn et al., 1991; Maccoby and Martin, 1983; Radziszewska et al., 1996; Steinberg et al., 1992). In terms of physical health, ineffective parenting (in particular parenting characterised by high levels of demand along with low levels of warmth and positive involvement ) is related to higher rates of childhood obesity and an unhealthy diet, including lower fruit and vegetable consumption, higher caloric intake and lower frequency of eating breakfast (Arredondo et al., 2006; Kremers et al., 2003; Patrick et al., 2005; Rhee, 2008; Wake et al., 2007). There is reason to believe that parenting practices and family interactions may also affect another common child health problem: dental caries. "
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this case-control study was to explore the relationship between parenting practices, parent echild interaction and childhood dental caries, using a sample of 5 to 8-year old children from the Netherlands. Cases were defined as children with four or more decayed, missing or filled teeth and controls were caries free. Cases (n=28) and controls (n=26) were recruited from a referral centre for paediatric dental care and a general dental practice, respectively. Parenting practices and parentechild interactions of the child's primary caregiver were observed using Structured Interaction Tasks and subsequently rated on seven dimensions: positive involvement, encouragement, problem-solving, discipline, monitoring, coercion and interpersonal atmosphere. All Structured Interaction Tasks were videotaped, and coded by trained and calibrated observers blind to the dental condition. Differences in parenting dimensions between cases and controls were analysed using multivariate analysis of variance, independent samples T-tests, X2-tests and multiple logistic regression analyses. Controls had significantly higher scores on the dimensions positive involvement, encouragement, problem-solving and interper-sonal atmosphere, compared to cases. Parents of controls were also less likely to show coercive be-haviours. These associations remained statistically significant after adjustment for the mother's education level, tooth brushing frequency and the frequency of consuming sugary foods and drinks, except for coercion. There was no significant difference in discipline between cases and controls. In conclusion, this case-control study found a significant relationship between parenting practices, parent echild interaction quality and childhood dental caries. Our findings suggest that parenting practices may be an important factor to consider in caries preventive programs.
    Social Science & Medicine (1967) 09/2014; 116:49-55. DOI:10.1016/j.socscimed.2014.06.031
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    • "Highly involved fathers (in terms of time spent with their children) seem likely to have more empathic sons and daughters who show a more internal locus of control (Cerniglia, Cimino, Ballarotto , & Monniello, 2014; Pleck, 2010). With specific regard to the context of feeding, international research has mainly focused on mother–infant interactions because mothers are traditionally thought to take primary responsibility for feeding their children (Blissett, Meyer, & Haycraft, 2006) and are usually considered their primary caregiver (Campbell et al., 2010; Patrick, Nicklas, Hughes, & Morales, 2005). However, parents' gender roles and responsibilities have changed in the last few decades, above all as a result of increasing employment outside the home for mothers with young children. "
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    ABSTRACT: The article aims to study mother-child and father-child interactions with 24-month-old children during feeding, considering the possible influence of time spent by the parent with the child, the infantile temperament, and the parental psychological profile. The families were recruited from 12 preschools in Italy (N = 77 families). Through an observation of the feeding [Scala di Valutazione dell'Interazione Alimentare (SVIA - Feeding Scale; I. Chatoor et al., ; L. Lucarelli et al., )], self-reporting [Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R; L.R. Derogatis, ), and report-form questionnaires [Italian Questionnaires on Temperament (QUIT; G. Axia, )], and information provided by the parents about the amount of time spent with their children, results showed that the overall quality of father-child interactions during feeding is lower than that of mother-child interactions. Fathers showed higher psychological symptoms than did mothers. No associations were found between the fathers' psychopathological risk and the quality of interactions with their children during feeding. Mothers' psychopathological risks predicted less contingent exchanges interactions with their children during feeding. Children's temperaments significantly influence mother-child interactions, but no association exists between maternal involvement and the quality of interactions with their children. Paternal involvement predicts a better quality of father-infant interactions when associated with a child's higher scores on Social Orientation. The quality of parents' interactions with their children during feeding are impacted by different issues originating from the parent's psychological profile, the degree of involvement, and from the child's temperament. © 2014 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.
    Infant Mental Health Journal 09/2014; 35(5). DOI:10.1002/imhj.21466 · 0.61 Impact Factor
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