Structure of the p53 Binding Domain of HAUSP/USP7 Bound to Epstein-Barr Nuclear Antigen 1
ABSTRACT USP7/HAUSP is a key regulator of p53 and Mdm2 and is targeted by the Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) protein of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). We have determined the crystal structure of the p53 binding domain of USP7 alone and bound to an EBNA1 peptide. This domain is an eight-stranded beta sandwich similar to the TRAF-C domains of TNF-receptor associated factors, although the mode of peptide binding differs significantly from previously observed TRAF-peptide interactions in the sequence (DPGEGPS) and the conformation of the bound peptide. NMR chemical shift analyses of USP7 bound by EBNA1 and p53 indicated that p53 binds the same pocket as EBNA1 but makes less extensive contacts with USP7. Functional studies indicated that EBNA1 binding to USP7 can protect cells from apoptotic challenge by lowering p53 levels. The data provide a structural and conceptual framework for understanding how EBNA1 might contribute to the survival of Epstein-Barr virus-infected cells.
SourceAvailable from: Takayuki Murata[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), which infects not only B cells but also T and natural killer (NK) cells, is associated with a variety of lymphoid malignancies. Because EBV-associated T and NK cell lymphomas are refractory and resistant to conventional chemotherapy, there is a continuing need for new effective therapies. EBV-encoded "latent membrane protein 1" (LMP1) is a major oncogene that activates nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling pathways, thus promoting cell growth and inhibiting apoptosis. Recently, we screened a library of small-molecule inhibitors and isolated heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) inhibitors as candidate suppressors of LMP1 expression. In this study, we evaluated the effects of BIIB021, a synthetic Hsp90 inhibitor, against EBV-positive and -negative T and NK lymphoma cell lines. BIIB021 decreased the expression of LMP1 and its downstream signaling proteins, NF-κB, JNK, and Akt, in EBV-positive cell lines. Treatment with BIIB021 suppressed proliferation in multiple cell lines, although there was no difference between the EBV-positive and -negative lines. BIIB021 also induced apoptosis and arrested the cell cycle at G1 or G2. Further, it down-regulated the protein levels of CDK1, CDK2, and cyclin D3. Finally, we evaluated the in vivo effects of the drug; BIIB021 inhibited the growth of EBV-positive NK cell lymphomas in a murine xenograft model. These results suggest that BIIB021 has suppressive effects against T and NK lymphoma cells through the induction of apoptosis or a cell cycle arrest. Moreover, BIIB021 might help to suppress EBV-positive T or NK cell lymphomas via the down-regulation of LMP1 expression.Frontiers in Microbiology 04/2015; 6:280. DOI:10.3389/fmicb.2015.00280 · 3.94 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The obligate intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii strikes a subtle balance with the host immune system that not only prevents host death but also promotes parasite persistence. Although being enclosed within a parasitophorous vacuole, the parasite actively interfaces with host cell signaling pathways, thereby directing host cell responses. To this end, T. gondii delivers effector proteins into the host cell that co-opt host transcription factors and eventually modulate gene expression. Aside from the secretory Rhoptry organelles initially described as the main source of such effectors, Dense Granules are now recognized as critical in delivering products that remain confined at the vacuolar space or traffic beyond the vacuole membrane to the host cell nucleus and contribute to rewire host gene expression. This review highlights the latest breakthroughs in T. gondii effector discovery and their modus operandi during infection. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.Current opinion in microbiology 08/2015; 26. DOI:10.1016/j.mib.2015.04.003 · 7.22 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Epstein-Barr virus-associated gastric carcinoma (EBVaGC) is a distinct subtype that accounts for nearly 10% of gastric carcinomas. EBVaGC is defined by monoclonal proliferation of carcinoma cells with latent EBV infection, as demonstrated by EBV-encoded small RNA (EBER) in situ hybridization. EBVaGC has characteristic clinicopathological features, including predominance among males, a proximal location in the stomach, lymphoepithelioma-like histology and a favorable prognosis. EBVaGC belongs to latency type I or II, in which EBERs, EBNA-1, BARTs, LMP-2A and BART miRNAs are expressed. Previous studies have shown that some EBV latent genes have oncogenic properties. Recent advances in genome-wide and comprehensive molecular analyses have demonstrated that both genetic and epigenetic changes contribute to EBVaGC carcinogenesis. Genetic changes that are characteristic of EBVaGC include frequent mutations in PIK3CA and ARID1A and amplification of JAK2 and PD-L1/L2. Global CpG island hypermethylation, which induces epigenetic silencing of tumor suppressor genes, is also a unique feature of EBVaGC and is considered to be crucial for its carcinogenesis. Furthermore, post-transcriptional gene expression regulation by cellular and/or EBV-derived microRNAs has attracted considerable attention. These abnormalities result in significant alterations in gene expression related to cell proliferation, apoptosis, migration and immune signaling pathways. In the present review we highlight the latest findings on EBVaGC from clinicopathological and molecular perspectives to provide a better understanding of EBV involvement in gastric carcinogenesis.International Journal of Oncology 01/2015; 46(4). DOI:10.3892/ijo.2015.2856 · 2.77 Impact Factor