Involvement of matrix metalloproteinase-7 in invasion-metastasis through induction of cell dissociation in pancreatic cancer.
ABSTRACT Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mediated mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway was isolated as invasion-metastasis related factor in pancreatic cancer in our previous studies. Matrix metalloproteinase-7 (MMP-7) and tight junction (TJ) proteins are indicated to be involved in cancer invasion-metastasis. To clarify the underlying mechanism of involvement of MMP-7 in cancer invasion, western blotting, invasion assay and immunohistochemistry were performed in dissociated (PC-1.0 and AsPC-1) and non-dissociated (PC-1 and Capan-2) pancreatic cancer cells, as well as pancreatic cancer tissues. Intracellular MMP-7 protein presented as pre-proenzyme and its expression was decreased by AG1478 (EGFR inhibitor) or U0126 (MEK inhibitor) treatment in pancreatic cancer cells. Activated MMP-7 protein was only detected in the medium of PC-1.0 and AsPC-1 cells, but not detected in the medium of PC-1 and Capan-2 cells. Moreover, MMP-7 treatment significant induced the dissociation of cell colonies in PC-1 and Capan-2 cells. Synchronously, TJ structure was apparently disrupted and translocation of TJ proteins to cytoplasm or extracellular medium was induced in PC-1 and Capan-2 cells. Furthermore, MMP-7 treatment markedly increased the in vitro invasion of PC-1 and Capan-2 cells. In addition, MMP-7 expression at the invasive front was obviously stronger than that at the center of pancreatic cancer tissues. Activation of MMP-7 protein is closely involved in disruption of TJ structure and consequent induction of cell dissociation as well as invasion in pancreatic cancer. EGFR mediated MEK/ERK signaling pathway is implied to be involved in regulation of MMP-7 expression in pancreatic cancer cells.
- SourceAvailable from: Konstantinos Konstantopoulos[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Mesothelin (MSLN) and cancer antigen125/mucin 16 (CA125/MUC16) are potential biomarkers for pancreatic cancer (PC) that are co-overexpressed at the invading edges of PC tissues, and their expression correlates with poor survival rates. However, the role of MSLN-MUC16 molecular interaction in PC cell motility and invasion has yet to be elucidated. Using sophisticated bioengineering and molecular biology tools, we report that the binding of MSLN to MUC16 markedly enhances PC cell motility and invasion via the selective induction of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-7. MSLN-mediated MMP-7 upregulation in MUC16-expressing PC cells occurs via a p38 MAPK-dependent pathway. Depletion of MMP-7 or inhibition of p38 activity abolishes MSLN-mediated PC motility and invasion. These findings provide a novel perspective on the enhanced invasive potential associated with MSLN and MUC16 co-overexpression, and the mechanism underlying MMP-7 activation in PC invasion and metastasis.Scientific Reports 05/2013; 3:1870. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-7, also known as matrilysin, is a "minimal domain MMP" that exhibits proteolytic activity against components of the extracellular matrix (ECM). Matrilysin is frequently overexpressed in human cancer tissues and is associated with cancer progression. Tumorigenesis is a multistep process involving cell growth, invasion, metastasis, and angiogenesis. Matrilysin has been shown to play important roles not only in degradation of ECM proteins, but also in the regulation of several biochemical processes such as activation, degradation, and shedding of non-ECM proteins. This minire-view provides a summary of the current literature on the roles of matrilysin in tumorigenesis with a focus on the roles of modifications of non-ECM proteins by matrilysin and other related MMPs in tumorigenesis. Proteolysis of insulin-like growth factor binding protein by matrilysin results in increased bioavailability of insulin-like growth factors and enhanced cellular proliferation. Matrilysin has also been implicated in the ectodomain shedding of several cell surface molecules. Heparin-binding epidermal growth factor precursor (proHB-EGF) is cleaved by matrilysin into mature HB-EGF, which promotes cellular proliferation. Membrane-bound Fas ligand (FasL) is cleaved into soluble FasL, which increases apoptosis of cells adjacent to tumor cells. E-cadherin is converted to soluble E-cadherin to promote invasion. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha precursor is cleaved to release soluble TNF-alpha to increase apoptosis. We propose that these matrilysin-mediated pathways provide the necessary and logical mechanisms to promote cancer progression.Experimental Biology and Medicine 02/2006; 231(1):20-7. · 2.80 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The ability of tumor cells to resist apoptosis triggered by immune cells results in their escape from immune surveillance of the host. A critical effector of apoptosis is the Fas/Fas ligand (FasL) system that mediates the tumoricidal effects of cytotoxic T cells. Recently, in vitro cleavage of Fas expressed in various tumor cells by matrix metalloproteinase-7 (MMP-7) was demonstrated. In the present study, we first analyzed the influence of this metalloproteinase on Fas signaling in SW480, HCT-15 and HT-29 colorectal carcinoma (CRC) cells by assessing their responses to either an agonistic Fas antibody (CH11) or the FasL-bearing Jurkat cells after they were pretreated with MMP-7. Interestingly, both antibody- and Jurkat cell-induced apoptosis in three different CRC lines were significantly reduced by MMP-7 pretreatment. Additionally, immunohistochemical (IHC) staining was used to examine the expression levels of MMP-7 and Fas in tumor samples of 54 CRC patients. In agreement with our in vitro observation, the expression of MMP-7 in tumor tissues was inversely correlated with those of Fas (P < 0.001; chi2-test). Moreover, shortened survival was found in patients with a higher MMP-7 and a lower Fas expression, respectively, in their tumor tissues (P < 0.0001). Finally, by multivariate analysis, we discovered that MMP-7 (P = 0.001) and Fas levels (P = 0.036) were independent prognostic factors for CRC patients. These results suggest that Fas downregulation and a consequential increased resistance to FasL-triggered apoptosis resulting from upregulated MMP-7 in colorectal cancer cells could be a key mechanism for their escape from the immune surveillance, thereby predicting a poor survival in CRC patients.Carcinogenesis 05/2006; 27(5):1113-20. · 5.64 Impact Factor