Associations of daycare and school entry vaccination requirements with varicella immunization rates
ABSTRACT School and daycare entry requirements have been credited with increasing immunization rates among school-age children, but no prior study has assessed the nationwide effects of entry requirements while controlling for individual, family, and household characteristics. The 2002 National Immunization Survey (NIS) is a nationally representative annual survey that includes provider record-verified immunization dates for 20,546 children aged 19-35 months without prior history of varicella. In weighted bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models, we examined the association of state entry mandate implementation with children's up-to-date (UTD) status for varicella vaccine, adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics of children, mothers, and household income and for children's UTD status for other recommended vaccines. In this national sample representative of 5.6 million children, 83.2% (95% CI: 82.3%-84.1%) were UTD for varicella vaccine. Between 1997 and 2002 inclusive, 33 states and the District of Columbia had implemented school and/or daycare entry immunization mandates for varicella. In bivariate analyses, 84.9% (83.9%-85.9%) of children in states with varicella entry mandates were UTD, compared to 76.8% (75.3%-78.4%) of children in states without such mandates. In multivariate analyses controlling for child and family characteristics, children living in states with varicella entry mandates remained significantly more likely to be UTD for varicella than children in states without mandates. These findings indicate that immunization entry requirements are associated with higher immunization rates among preschool-age children, and suggest that the effects of entry requirements are independent of other individual and household factors associated with childhood immunization.
SourceAvailable from: Falko F Sniehotta[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Financial incentives have been used to promote vaccination uptake but are not always viewed as acceptable. Quasimandatory policies, such as requiring vaccinations for school enrollment, are widely implemented in some countries. A systematic review was conducted to determine the effectiveness, acceptability, and economic costs and consequences of parental financial incentives and quasimandatory schemes for increasing the uptake of preschool vaccinations in high-income countries. METHODS: Electronic databases and gray literature were searched for randomized controlled trials, controlled before-and-after studies, and time series analyses examining the effectiveness of parental financial incentives and quasimandatory schemes, as well as any empirical studies exploring acceptability. All included studies were screened for information on economic costs and consequences. Two reviewers independently assessed studies for inclusion, extracted data, and assessed the quality of selected articles by using established instruments. Studies were synthesized in narrative reviews. RESULTS: Four studies on the effectiveness and 6 on the acceptability of parental financial incentives and quasimandatory interventions met the inclusion criteria. Only 1 study reported on costs and consequences. Studies of effectiveness had low risk of bias but displayed substantial heterogeneity in terms of interventions and methods. CONCLUSIONS: There was insufficient evidence to conclude whether these interventions were effective. Studies of acceptability suggested a preference, in settings where this already occurs, for incentives linking vaccinations to access to education. There was insufficient evidence to draw conclusions on economic costs and consequences.Pediatrics 09/2014; 134(4). DOI:10.1542/peds.2014-1279 · 5.30 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This paper provides an analytical framework for evaluating the effects of individual health insurance mandates on coverage. That framework draws from three literatures — health economics, tax compliance, and behavioral economics — to identify the factors that affect people's responses to health insurance mandates. The health economics literature explains how people value health insurance and how changes in its costs affect coverage. The tax compliance literature indicates that the probability of detection and peoples attitudes toward risk affect perceptions of those costs. The salience of the mandate and social norms — factors from the behavioral economics literature — also may affect coverage decisions.National tax journal 01/2010; 63(4):659-679. DOI:10.2307/41791073 · 0.37 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Japan is well known as a country with a strong health record. However its incidence rates of vaccine preventable diseases (VPD) such as hepatitis B, measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella remain higher than other developed countries. This article reviews the factors that contribute to the high rates of VPD in Japan. These include historical and political factors that delayed the introduction of several important vaccines until recently. Access has also been affected by vaccines being divided into government-funded "routine" (eg, polio, pertussis) and self-pay "voluntary" groups (eg, hepatitis A and B). Routine vaccines have higher rates of administration than voluntary vaccines. Administration factors include differences in well child care schedules, the approach to simultaneous vaccination, vaccination contraindication due to fever, and vaccination spacing. Parental factors include low intention to fully vaccinate their children and misperceptions about side effects and efficacy. There are also provider knowledge gaps regarding indications, adverse effects, interval, and simultaneous vaccination. These multifactorial issues combine to produce lower population immunization rates and a higher incidence of VPD than other developed countries. This article will provide insight into the current situation of Japanese vaccinations, the issues to be addressed and suggestions for public health promotion.