Instructions for use
Development of Taenia saginata asiatica metacestodes in SCID
mice and its infectivity in human and alternative definitive
Chang, S. L.; Nonaka, N.; Kamiya, M.; Kanai, Y.; Ooi, H. K.;
Chung, W. C.; Oku, Y.
CitationParasitology Research, 96(2): 95-101
RightThe original publication is available at www.springerlink.com
Typearticle (author version)
Hokkaido University Collection of Scholarly and Academic Papers : HUSCAP
S. L. Chang, N. Nonaka, M. Kamiya, Y. Kanai, H. K. Ooi, W. C. Chung, Y. Oku
Development of Taenia saginata asiatica metacestodes in SCID mice
and its infectivity in human and alternative definitive hosts
S. L. Chang, N. Nonaka, Y. Kanai, Y. Oku (Corresponding author)
Laboratory of Parasitology, Graduate School of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo
E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org
Tel. and fax:+81-11-706-5196
Laboratory of Environmental Zoology, Department of Biosphere and Environmental Sciences,
Faculty of Environmental Systems, Rakuno Gakuen University, Ebetsu 069-8501, Japan
H. K. Ooi
Department of Veterinary Medicine, National Chung Hsing University, 250 Kuo Kuang Road,
W. C. Chung
Department of Parasitology, Taipei Medical University, 250 Wu Hsing Road, Taipei, Taiwan
Abstract: Development of Taenia saginata asiatica metacestodes in SCID mice and its infectivity
in humans, and in golden hamsters and Mongolian gerbils as alternative definitive hosts, were
investigated. Cysticerci were recovered from SCID mice that were subcutaneously injected with
hatched eggs of T. s. asiatica. The morphological changes of cysticerci were observed. The
recovered cysticerci were by fed to gerbils, hamsters and humans, to check for infectivity.
Tapeworms were recovered from gerbils and hamsters that were fed 20 to 45 week-old cysticerci,
and proglottids excretion were observed in human volunteers fed with 45 week-old cysticerci.
However, no tapeworms were recovered from gerbils fed with 10 week-old cysticerci. Our results
suggest that T. s. asiatica oncospheres needed more than 20 weeks to develop to maturity in SCID
mice to be infective to both their natural and alternative definitive hosts.
Keywords: Taenia saginata asiatica; Metacestode; Cysticercus; SCID mice; Alternative host;
Asian taeniasis, caused by Taenia saginata asiatica, was first reported by Oi in 1915 in central
Taiwan (Oi 1915). It has been reported in many other Asian countries such as China (several
provinces), Korea, Indonesia, Thailand, Philippines, Malaysia and Myanmar (Fan et al. 1989, 1990a,
1992a, 1992b; Eom and Rim 1993; Bowles and McManus 1994; Simanjuntak et al. 1997; Zhang et
al. 1999; Fan 2000; Fan et al. 2001; Eom et al. 2002; Ito et al. 2003).
Compared with other human taeniids, the tapeworm of T. s. asiatica has no hook on its rostellum,
which differed from T. solium but is similar to the classical T. saginata (Taenia saginata saginata)
(Fan et al. 1995). However, in the intermediate host, metacestodes of T. s. asiatica parasitize in the
viscera (mostly in the liver) of pigs (Fan et al. 1995; Eom and Rim 2001), whereas T. s. saginata
parasitize in the muscle of cattle (Schmidt and Roberts 2000).
Recently, eggs of T. s. asiatica had been reported to develop into mature cysticerci when injected
into the subcutaneous tissue of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) and immunosuppressed
ICR mice (Ito et al. 1997b; Ito and Ito 1999; Wang et al. 1999). The size of the cysticerci recovered
from SCID mice was found to be larger than those in the pigs (Ito et al. 1997a). Moreover, 49% of
the metacestode were seen to be calcified or degenerated in 34 infected pigs at 11 to 97 days
post-infection but no calcification of the metacestodes was observed in the SCID mice at 244 days
post-infection (Wang et al. 2000; Fan et al. 1990c).
Since the SCID mouse has proved to be an experimental intermediate host model for the study of
the development of T. s. asiatica metacestodes, it is necessary to confirm the infectivity of the
cysticerci recovered from SCID mice. Human is the only known natural definitive host of the three
aforementioned human taeniids. In addition, alternative definitive hosts have been used to test for
the infectivity of the cysticerci. Alternative definitive host models for T. solium using golden
hamsters, Mongolian gerbils, chinchillas and gibbons that were orally inoculated with cysticerci
obtained from naturally infected pigs, have been reported. Gravid proglottids were recovered only
from chinchillas and gibbons (Cadigan et al. 1967; Verster 1971, 1974; Maravilla et al. 1998). For T.
s. saginata, sexually mature tapeworms were recovered from gerbils inoculated with cysticerci from
naturally infected cattle (Kamiya et al. 1990). It has also been demonstrated that cysticerci of T.
solium recovered from SCID mice could develop to maturity in hamster albeit only pregravid
tapeworm was observed (Wang et al. 1999). In the present study, we examined the infectivity and
development of T. s. asiatica metacestodes from SCID mice in human and its alternative definitive
hosts, the golden hamsters and Mongolian gerbils.
Materials and Methods
Proglottids of T. s. asiatica adult worm were collected from a Taiwanese aborigine patient after
deworming with atabrine (Quinacrine) (Fan et al. 1990b). The worms were kept at 4˚C in saline
Development of metacestodes in SCID mice
Eggs were collected from gravid proglottids. Embryophores were removed by incubating the
eggs in 10 % sodium hypochlorite for 10 minutes, and the oncospheres were washed 5 times in
sterile saline. Eighteen SCID mice (C.B-17/Icr-scidJcl, female) purchased from a commercial
source (CLEA, Tokyo, Japan) were subcutaneously inoculated with 20,000 and 40,000 oncospheres
and intraperitoneally with 18,600 oncospheres of T. s. asiatica, respectively (Table 1). The SCID
mice were kept in sterile cages and wood chips used as bedding. The mice were provided with
autoclaved drinking water and commercial pellet food (CLEA, Tokyo, Japan) ad libitum. All the
inoculated SCID mice were sacrificed under ethyl ether anaesthesia at 10, 20, 21, 24 and 45 weeks
after inoculation. To check the evagination rate, cysticerci were incubated in calf bile in 37˚C for 1
hour. For morphological observation, evaginated cysticerci were relaxed in the refrigerator (4˚C) in
saline overnight, fixed in 70% alcohol and cleared in glycerin.
Table 1 Recovery rates of T. s. asiatica metacestodes from eighteen SCID mice subcutaneously
inoculated with oncospheres
Oncospheres SCID Mice Metacestodes recovery
Number Source a Inoculation
A Subcutaneous20,000 5 12, 20 133.6 20-218 0.1-1.1
Intraperitoneal18,600 5 12, 20 10.8 0-50 0-0.3
B Subcutaneous40,000 3 24, 62 153.6 1-450 0.003-1.1
Subcutaneous 20,000 5 10-45 814.2 174-2,000 b 0.9-6.4
a Source A: Eggs collected from worms after deworm treatment in December, 2003 and inoculated
into mice on January 9, 2004.
a Source B: Eggs collected from worms after deworm treatment in April, 2004 and inoculated in
bThe number of recovered metacestodes from 1 (2000 metacestodes were recovered) of the 5 mice
was estimated by the dilution method, and the other samples were counted without diluting.
Development of tapeworms in human and alternative definitive hosts
Three human volunteers (1 female, volunteer A; age 30, 2 males, volunteer B and volunteer C;
age 26 and 51 years old) each swallowed five 45-week-old cysticerci that were obtained from the
SCID mice. After eating the cysticerci, the human volunteers checked their feces daily for the
presence of proglottids. Fifty-five 3-week-old male golden hamsters were purchased from a
commercial breeder (SLC, Shizuoka, Japan) and used for the experiment after 3 weeks
acclimatization (Table 2). The hamsters were divided into 2 groups, designated H1 and H2, and then
orally inoculated with 20 or 24 week-old cysticerci, respectively. Eighty-one 5 to 11 week-old male
and female Mongolian gerbils raised in our laboratory, were used for the experiment (Table 2). The
gerbils were orally inoculated with 10, 20, 21 and 45 week-old cysticerci and divided into 4 groups,
namely G1, G2, G3 and G4. The animals were injected subcutaneously with prednisolone acetate at
different schedules as shown in Table 2. They were then orally inoculated with cysticerci of T. s.
asiatica obtained from the SCID mice by stomach tubes and fed commercial pellet food (CLEA,
Tokyo, Japan) and water ad libitum. Animals were sacrificed under ethyl ether anaesthesia at 2 to
146 days post inoculation (DPI) and tapeworms were collected from their intestines. After relaxing
the worm in saline at 4˚C overnight, the worms were fixed in 70% ethanol, stained with
acid-carmine and observed under light microscope.
Alternative definitive host groups and their treatment
Group Number Age (weeks old) Sexa Numberb
Age (weeks old)
Schedule of PA
H1 10 6 M 6 20 A
10 6 M 6 20 B
11 6 M 6 20 C
10 6 M 6 20 D
H2 8 6 M 15 24 A
6 6 M 15 24 D
G1 21 5-7 M, F 20-40 10 A
G2 11 6-9 M, F 6 20 A
11 6-9 M, F 6 20 C
10 6-9 M 6 20 D
G3 11 6-12 M 25-40 21 A
G4 11 6-11 M 2 45 E
6 5 M 2 45 E
a M: male; F: female.
bNumber of cysticerci / animal
cDosage of PA (prednisolone acetate) was 0.2-0.5 mg per animal. PA treatment schedules are as
A: every 7 days from 17-3 days before infection;
B: every 4 days from 6 days before infection;
C: every 2 days from 6 days before infection;
D: no PA treatment;
E: every 7 days from 7-0 days before infection and every 14 days from 56 days after infection.
Development of metacestodes in SCID mice
Metacestodes were recovered from the subcutaneous tissue inoculation site as well as from the
peritoneal cavity of SCID mice (Table 1). The recovery rates of metacestodes from intraperitoneally
inoculated mice ranged from 0 to 0.3%, while those from subcutaneously inoculated mice ranged
from 0.1 to 1.1% (Table 1, parasite source A). The recovery rate of metacestodes from the
subcutaneously inoculated mice was higher than those from the intraperitoneally inoculated mice.
Evagination rate of the recovered cysticerci was 88% for 10 week-old cysticerci, 69% for 24
week-old cysticerci and 100% for 45 week-old cysticerci (Table 3). The total length of the
evaginated cysticerci increased with age, as well as the average width of the scolex and diameter of
the suckers (Table 3).
Microscopic observation revealed that calcareous corpuscles were few in 10 week-old cysticerci
but abundant in 24 and 45 week-old cysticerci (Fig. 1b, 2b). Hooklets (rudimentary hooks) could be
observed in 10 (Fig. 1c-d), 24 (Fig. 2c-d) and 45 week-old metacestodes (10-48% of the specimens
all ages possess the hooklets). The rostellar region of 10 week-old cysticerci was full of
small-granules aggregations (Fig. 1c-d), while the rostellar regions of 24 and 45 week-old cysticerci
showed fewer small-granules aggregations (Table 3, Fig. 2c-d).
The recovery rate of tapeworms was 1.2% (3/246) for 20 week-old and 1.4% (3/210) for 24
week-old cysticerci in the golden hamster. The recovery rate of tapeworm was 0% (0/640) for 10
week-old, 1.0% (2/192) for 20 week-old, 0.5% (2/403) for 21 week-old and 5.8%(2/34) for 45
week-old cysticerci in Mongolian gerbils (Table 4).
Evagination rates and morphological measurements of T. s. asiatica cysticerci recovered from the
three SCID mice
Morphological observation of cysticerci Age of
Width of scolex
No. of calcareous
1,750±470 590±130 220±60
Few (less than 50) 50/57 (88%)
3,890±800 680±100 290±30
Abundant 34/49 (69%)
5,930±870 710±60 300±40
Abundant 25/25 (100%)
a Evagination rate of cysticerci was examined in 100% calf bile in 37˚C for 1 hour.
Development of tapeworms in alternative definitive hosts
Recovery of T. s. asiatica tapeworms from Mongolia gerbils and golden hamsters orally inoculated
with cysticerci obtained from SCID mice
Weeks post-infection at necropsy Tapeworms
Group Age (wk)
<1 week 1-2 weeks 2-4 weeks >4 weeks Total number b (%) Number c (%)
H1 20 6 0/16 d 2/12 1/13 - 3/41 (7) 3/246 (1.2)
H2 24 15 1/1 1/1 1/6 0/6 3/14 (21) 3/210 (1.4)
G1 10 20, 40 - 0/21
- 0/21 (0) 0/640 (0)
G2 20 6 1/12 1/7 0/13 - 2/32 (6) 2/192(1.0)
G3 21 25-40 0/1 1/3 1/3 0/4 2/11 (18) 2/403 (0.5)
G4 45 2 0/2 0/1 - 2/14 2/17 (11) 2/34 (5.8)
a Number of inoculated cysticerci / animal
b Only one worm was detected in each infected host
c The number of tapeworms recovered from hamsters or gerbils / the number of cysticerci
d No. of positive animal / No. of examined.
Fig. 1a-d 10 week-old cysticerci recovered from SCID mice. a A whole specimen. Bar, 500 µm. b
Few calcareous corpuscles (cc). Bar, 50 µm. c The rostellum. Bar, 50 µm. Hooklets (h) and
small-granules aggregations (sg). Bar, 50 µm. d Drawing of the rostellum in the Fig.1c.
Fig. 2a-d A 24 week-old metacestode recovered from SCID mice. Bar, 500 µm. a A whole
specimen. Bar, 500 µm. b Calcareous corpuscles completely filled the neck region of the
metacestode. Bar, 50 µm. c The rostellum. Bar, 50 µm. d Drawing of the rostellum in the Fig.1-B.
Hooklets (h) and small-granules aggregations (sg). Bar, 50 µm.
Development of tapeworms in alternative definitive hosts
Tapeworms of T. s. asiatica were recovered from golden hamsters at days 6, 7, 12, 13 and 14
post-infection. The worms were also recovered from immunosuppressed gerbils at days 2, 7, 25, 36
and 62 post-infection (Table 4). Worms were detected in the anterior part of the small intestine. The
length of the six tapeworms recovered from six hamsters (one worm from each animal) after
fixation, ranged from 1 to 6 mm, while that of the six tapeworms from six gerbils ranged from 1 to
40 mm (Fig. 4). The tapeworm positive rate of the hamsters inoculated with 20 week-old cysticerci
was 7% (3/41) and with 24 week-old cysticerci was 21% (3/14). The tapeworm positive rate of the
gerbils inoculated with 10 week-old cysticerci was 0% (0/21), with 20 week-old cysticerci in gerbils
was 6% (2/32), with 21 week-old cysticerci was 18% (2/11), and with 45 week-old cysticerci in
gerbils was 11% (2/17) (Table 4). Genital primordia were observed in posterior segments of the
worms recovered from the gerbils on days 36 and 62 post-infection (Fig. 3). The longest worm (40
mm in total length) with 164 demarcated segments was recovered from a gerbil at 36 DPI.
Fig. 3 Tapeworm of T. s. asiatica recovered from a gerbil at day 36 post-infection. Genital
primordia (g) in posterior segment of the strobila. Bar, 200 µm.
Fig. 4 Length of T. s. asiatica adult worm recovered from either gerbils (black circle) or hamsters
(white circle) in the period of 2 to 62 days post-infection.
Development of tapeworms in human
Two out of the 3 human volunteers who took the cysticerci shed strobila or segments of T. s.
asiatica in their feces. Strobilae with gravid segments and without scolex were found on day 64 (1
strobila), 90 (3 strobilae) and 131 (1 strobila) post-infection from the volunteer A and on day 114 (2
strobilae), 138 (1 strobila) and 194 (1 strobila) post-infection from the volunteer B. Volunteer C did
not shed any proglottids and was deemed not to be infected. The prepatent periods of T. s. asiatica
infection in the 2 human volunteers were 64 and 114 days respectively. The two human volunteers
were dewormed using atabrine at days 191 (expulsion of 3 strobilae) and 194 (expulsion of 1
strobila) post-infection, respectively. Gravid segment excretion of volunteer A was found from 81 to
90 (mean: 4.3 proglottids per day; ranging from 0 to 14) and from 177 to 190 (mean: 9 proglottids
per day; ranging from 0 to 42) days post-infection. Volunteer B excreted gravid segments from 169
to 191 days (5.3 proglottids per day; ranged from 0 to 33) post-infection. Eggs were detected during
and after the period of segment shedding in the feces.
It has been reported that oral inoculation with eggs of T. s. asiatica could not produce a
successful infection in mice and that only intraperitoneal inoculation of oncospheres that have been
hatched in vitro could result in a high recovery rate of metacestodes from SCID mice (Ito et al.
1997a; Ito and Ito 1999). However, our results showed that only a few metacestodes could be
recovered from the intraperitoneally inoculated animals and the recovery rate was much lower than
the subcutaneously inoculated ones.
Metacestodes of T. s. asiatica had been found to develop to maturity in the liver of
experimentally infected pigs, showing hooklets and active movement at 28 DPI (Fan 1988). In
SCID mice, T. s. asiatica metacestodes had been reported to develop to cysticerci with a total length
(after the evagination) of 16 and 31 mm, and with suckers diameter of 199 and 252 µm at 9 and 25
weeks after subcutaneous inoculation, respectively (Wang et al. 2000). We observed a similar
increase in the total length of cysticerci, but the diameter of suckers was larger than those reported
by Wang et al. (2000). However, they also reported that the inner hooklets ranged from 11 to 19 and
the outer hooklets are small and numerous on the rostellum of the 9 to 31 week-old cysticerci in
addition to the numerous calcareous corpuscles in the neck region of the 9 week-old cysticerci
(Wang et al. 2000). No further study on the differences of the number of the hooklets and calcareous
corpuscles among the various ages of metacestodes had been published. In our study, the
rudimentary hooks, that were reported to be inner hooklets by Eom and Rim (1993) and Fan et al.
(1995), were observed in most but not all of the cysticerci of all the ages. We observed many
small-granules aggregates in place of those outer hooklets as reported by Eom and Rim (1993) and
Fan et al. (1995) in the rostellar region, with few calcareous corpuscles in the 10 week-old
cysticerci. In the 24 week-old cysticerci, we observed only few small-granules aggregates in the
rostellar region but abundant calcareous corpuscles. We also demonstrated that the infectivity of the
cysticerci recovered from SCID mice varied with age by using the alternative definitive host models.
No adult tapeworm could be recovered from the alternative definitive hosts (gerbils) inoculated
with 10 week-old cysticerci, but several adult worms were recovered from the gerbils and hamsters
orally inoculated with 20, 21, 24 and 45 week-old cysticerci. This could be due to the insufficient
development of the 10 week-old cysticerci, whereas the older cysticerci were sufficiently developed
to grow to maturity. Since the 45 week-old cysticerci showed the highest recovery rate among the
various age, they were thought to be more mature than the other younger cysticerci.
However, in our study animals inoculated with a higher dose of the 21 week-old cysticerci
showed lower recovery rate than those inoculated with a lower dose of the 20 week-old cysticerci. It
has been reported that golden hamsters inoculated with 20 cysticerci of T. solium showed a lower
recovery rate than those inoculated with 10 cysticerci (Monroy-Ostria et al. 1993). The probability
of competition for nutrient among the worms resulting in a high inoculation dose of cysticerci
leading to a low recovery rate of adult worm should be considered.
Evagination of the cysticerci scolex in vitro by incubation with bile has been used for evaluating
the viability of cysticerci (Peniche-Cardena 2002). Fan et al. (2000) showed that the evagination
rate of the 9 week-old cysticerci recovered from SCID mice was 77% after incubation in 100% pig
bile for 20 minutes at 37˚C. However, the infectivity of those cysticerci was not been demonstrated.
In our study, a high evagination rate (88%) was obtained for 10 week-old cysticerci but they were
found not to be infective to gerbils. Thus, a high evagination rate of the cysticerci does not always
indicate high infectivity of the cysticerci in its definitive hosts. However, the presence of abundant
calcareous corpuscles in the scolex and the degree of rostellar development could be considered as
important criteria for evaluating the infectivity of the cysticerci.
Tapeworm recovery of the positive groups (H1, H2, G2, G3, and G4 groups) was 6.2 % (2/32) at
1 to 7 DPI, 20.8 % (5/24) at 8 to 14 DPI, 8.5% (3/35) at 15 to 28 DPI and 8.3 % (2/24) at 29 to 62
DPI. The recovery rate of the latter phase (29 to 62 DPI) was not lower than that of the earlier phase
(1 to 7 DPI). We hypothesize that tapeworm of T. s. asiatica could survive in the intestine of their
hosts for a long period after their establishment there. Thus, a highly sensitive, reliable and quick
detection method such as coproantigen ELISA test is needed to confirm the establishment and
survival of the worms in the intestine of the alternative definitive hosts.
Proglottids were reportedly detected in one out of three human volunteers who had eaten 10
week-old cysticerci of T. s. asiatica obtained from the liver of an experimentally infected Freisian
Holstein calf (Chao et al. 1988; Fan et al. 1987). The first gravid proglottid was found on day 122
post-infection (Chao et al. 1988). Korean male volunteer demonstrated that the first gravid
proglottid of T. s. a. could be recovered from his feces 76 days after eating 5 cysticerci obtained
from naturally infected domestic pigs (Eom and Rim 1992). In our study, first strobila shed with the
feces was observed at 64 DPI in the female volunteer and 131 DPI in the male volunteer. Gravid
proglottids were first observed at 81 in the former and 177 DPI in the latter. Thus, there is a
variation in prepatent period of human T. s. asiatica infection, but further study on the sex of the
host is needed.
In the alternative definitive host infection, genital primordia were observed in the posterior
segments of the tapeworms recovered on day 36 and 62 post-infection. It was obvious that T. s.
asiatica develop better in the human host than in the alternative definitive hosts. However, a longer
infection period might be necessary for its development in the alternative definitive hosts. In this
study, the alternative definitive models were shown to be effective in demonstrating the infectivity
of the various ages of T. s. asiatica metacestodes.
Acknowledgements We thank the staff of the Laboratory of Parasitology, Graduate School of
Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University for their technical support and suggestions. This work
was supported in part by Grant-in Aid for Scientific Research from Japan Society for Promotion of
Science and by grants from the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare, Japan.
Bowles J, McManus D P (1994) Genetic characterization of the Asian Taenia, a newly described
taeniid cestode of humans. Am J Trop Med Hyg 50: 33-44.
Cadigan F, Santon J S, Tanticharoenyus P, Chaicumpa V (1967) The Lar Gibbon as definitive and
intermediate host of Taenia solium. Med Res 53: 844.
Chao D, Chung W C, Wang M M, Fan P C (1988) Experimental infection in a human subject by a
possibly undescribed species of Taenia in Taiwan. J Helminthol 62: 235-242.
Eom K S, Rim H J (1992) Experimental human infection with Asian Taenia saginata metacestodes
obtained from naturally infected Korean domestic pigs. Korean J Parasitol 30: 21-24.
Eom K S, Rim H J (1993) Morphologic descriptions of Taenia asiatica sp. n. Korean J Parasitol 31:
Eom K S, Rim H J (2001) Epidemiological understanding of Taenia tapeworm infections with
special reference to Taenia asiatica in Korea. Korean J Parasitol 39: 267-283.
Eom K S, Jeon H K, Kong Y, Hwang U W, Yang Y, Li X, Xu L, Feng Z, Pawlowski Z S, Rim H J
(2002) Identification of Taenia asiatica in China: Molecular, morphological, and
epidemiological analysis of a Luzhai isolate. J Parasitol 88: 758–764.
Fan P C, Chung W C, Chan C H, Wong M M, Wu C C, Hsu M C, Huang S H, Chen Y A (1987)
Studies on taeniasis in Taiwan. 3. Experimental infection of Taiwan Taenia in domestic animals.
Proceedings of the First Sino-American Symposium 1: 119-125.
Fan P C (1988) Taiwan Taenia and Taeniasis. Parasitol. Today 4: 86-88.
Fan P C, Lin C Y, Kosman M L, Kosin E (1989) Experimental infection of Indonesia Taenia
(Samosir strain) in domestic animals. Int J Parasitol 19: 809-812.
Fan P C, Chung W C, Lin C Y, Wu C C (1990a) Experimental infection of Thailand Taenia
(Chiengmai strain) in domestic animals. Int J Parasitol 20: 121–123.
Fan P C, Chung W C, Lin C Y, Wu C C (1990b) The effect of fasting on the treatment of taeniasis.
Chinese J Parasitol 3: 93-95.
Fan P C, Soh C T, Kosin E (1990c) Pig as a favorable intermediate host of a possible new species of
Taenia in Asia. Yonsei Rep Trop Med 21: 39-58.
Fan P C, Lin C Y, Chen L M (1992a) Experimental infection of Taenia saginata (Burma) in
domestic animals with special reference on its morphological characteristics. Ann Trop Med
Parasitol 86: 317-318.
Fan P C, Lin C Y, Chung W C (1992b) Experimental infection of Philippine Taenia in domestic
animals. Int J Parasitol 22: 235-238.
Fan P C, Lin C Y, Chen C C, Chung W C (1995) Morphological description of Taenia saginata
asiatica (Cyclophyllidea: Taeniidae) from man in Asia. J Helminthol 69: 299-303.
Fan P C (2000) Taeniasis and Taenia saginata asiatica in Asia. Chinese J Parasitol 13: 71-94.
Fan P C, Wang I C, Chung W C (2000) Determination on evagination and survival of cysticerci of
Taenia saginata asiatica in bile of pig and normal saline. Chinese J Parasitol 13: 123-139.
Fan P C, Chung W C, Chen E R (2001) Parasitic infections among the aborigines in Taiwan with
special emphasis on Taeniasis asiatica. Kaohsiung J Med Sci 17: 1–15.
Ito A, Chung W C, Chen C C, Ito M, Endo S, Okamoto M, Fan P C (1997a) Human Taenia eggs
develop into cysticerci in scid mice. Parasitology 114: 85-88.
Ito A, Ito M, Eom K S, Chung W C, Chen C C, Ma L, Endo S, Fan P C (1997b) In vitro hatched
oncospheres of Asian Taenia from Korea and Taiwan develop into cysticerci in the peritoneal
cavity of female scid (severe combined immunodeficiency) mice. Int J Parasitol 27: 631-633.
Ito A, Ito M (1999) Human Taenia in severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice. Parasitol
Today 15: 64-67.
Ito A, Nakao M, Wandra T (2003) Human taeniasis and cysticercosis in Asia. Lancet 362:
Kamiya M, Sato H, Kitaoka M, Ishiwata K, Oku Y, Ito M, Gathura P, Cross J H (1990) Laboratory
rodent models for the tapeworm-stage of Taenia saginata and other related taeniid species.
Emerging problems in food borne parasitic zoonosis: impact on agriculture and public health.
Proceedings of the 33rd SEAMEO TROPMED Regional Seminar, Chiang Mai, Thailand. 22:
Maravilla P, Avila G, Cabrera V, Aguilar L, Flisser A (1998) Comparative development of Taenia
solium in experimental models. J Parasitol 84: 882-886.
Monroy-Ostria A, Monroy-Ostria T J, Gomez G J, Hernandez M O (1993) Some studies on the
experimental infection of golden hamsters with Taenia solium. Rev Lat.-Amer Microbial 35:
Oi T (1915) Examination of the eggs of intestinal parasites in central Taiwan. J Formosan Med
Assoc 154: 816-825.
Peniche-Cardena A, Dominguez-Alpizar J L, Sima-Alvarez R, Argaez-Rodriguez F, Fraser A, Craig
P S, Rodriguez-Canul R (2002) Chemotherapy of porcine cysticercosis with albendazole
sulphoxide. Vet Parasitol 108: 63-73.
Schmidt G D, Roberts L S (2000) Tapeworm. In: Gerald D. Schmidt & Larry S, Roberts`
Foundation of Parasitology. 6th Ed. McGraw-Hill Press Singapore pp. 333-338.
Simanjuntak G M, Margono S S, Okamoto M, Ito A (1997) Taeniasis/ cysticercosis in Indonesia as
an emerging disease. Parasitol Today 13: 321-323.
Verster A (1971) Preliminary report on the golden hamster as a definitive host of Taenia solium
Linneaus, 1758 and Taenia saginata Goeze, 1782. J Vet Res 38: 63-64.
Verster A (1974) The golden hamster as a definitive host of Taenia solium and Taenia saginata.
Onderstepoort J Vet Res 41: 23-28.
Wang I C, Guo J X, Ma Y X, Chung W C, Lu S C, Fan P C (1999) Sexual development of Taenia
solium in hamsters from rodent-derived cysticerci. J Helminthol 73: 347-350.
Wang I C, Chung W C, Lu S C, Fan P C (2000) Rodent model for long-term maintenance and
development of the viable cysticerci of Taenia saginata asiatica. Korean J Parasitol 38:
Zhang L, Hao H, Zhang B, Wang H, Wang Y, Li Z, Yang H, Li Y, Wu Y (1999) First discovery of
Taenia saginata asiatica infection in Yunnan province. Chin J Parasitol Parasit Dis 17: 95-6. (In