Article

por Variable-region typing by DNA probe hybridization is broadly applicable to epidemiologic studies of Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts, United States
Journal of Clinical Microbiology (Impact Factor: 4.23). 05/2005; 43(4):1522-30. DOI: 10.1128/JCM.43.4.1522-1530.2005
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The porin gene (porB) of Neisseria gonorrhoeae encodes the major outer membrane protein identified as PI or Por. To examine the utility of por variable-region (VR) typing, porB from 206 isolates was characterized by using oligonucleotide probes in a checkerboard hybridization assay that identifies the sequence types of five VRs of both PIA and PIB porB alleles. The strains represented temporally and geographically distinct isolates, isolates from a large cluster, epidemiologically linked partner isolates, and a collection of strains from disseminated gonococcal infections. By using rigorous epidemiologic criteria for transmission of infection between sex partners, por VR typing was more discriminatory than serovar typing in classifying isolates from both members of 43 epidemiologically linked pairs: 39 of 43 pairs were classified as coinciding by por VR typing compared to 43 of 43 by serovar determination (P = 0.058). porB sequence data confirmed the accuracy of the por VR method. Relationships between VR type and serovar typing monoclonal antibodies were observed for all six PIB and three of six PIA antibodies. por VR typing is a molecular tool that appears to have broad applicability. This method can be adapted to a wide range of technologies from simple hybridization to microarray and may allow for typing from noncultured clinical specimens.

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    ABSTRACT: Neisseria gonorrhoeae porin (por), a major outer membrane protein, has been studied extensively and is the basis of many gonococcal typing schemes. Epidemiological studies which utilize the porin-based typing method called variable region (VR) typing have shown certain VR types of the porB1A allele occur more frequently. We examine the hypothesis that certain porin types give strains a functional advantage. Alternatively, porin may just be a marker of more fit clones. To investigate the issue of clonality, we utilized pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Isolates of the first and second most common VR types fell into a total of six different PFGE clusters, which were > 85% similar in band patterns. From these results, we concluded that a porin-mediated advantage may exist in these strains. The best characterized porin-mediated phenotype that may confer a fitness advantage is the capacity of some porins to mediate resistance to the bactericidal activity of normal human serum. The persistence of certain VR types among P1A strains of various ancestral backgrounds is evidence that certain porins may play an important role in survival or transmission, perhaps due to conferring increased resistance to host complement. An increased understanding of the role of porin in pathogenesis may provide invaluable insight into the success of certain strains within communities and the study of porin as a possible vaccine target.
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    ABSTRACT: Variations of porB1A and porB1B genes and their serotypes exist in Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates from different geographical areas, and some site mutations in the porB1B gene correlate with drug resistance. The β-lactamase production of N. gonorrhoeae isolates was determined by paper acidometric test and nitrocefin discs. The porB1A and porB1B genes of 315 non-penicillinase-producting N. gonorrhoeae (non-PPNG) strains were amplified by PCR for sequencing to determine serotypes and site mutations. A duplex PCR was designed to simultaneously detect both porB1A and porB1B genes. Penicillin and tetracycline resistance was assessed by an in vitro drug sensitivity test. Of the N. gonorrhoeae isolates, 31.1% tested positive for porB1A and 68.9% for porB1B genes. All the 98 porB1A+ isolates belonging to IA6 serotype with either no mutation at the 120 and 121 sites (88.8%) or a D120G (11.2%) mutation and were no resistance to both penicillin and tetracycline. Among the 217 porB1B+ isolates, 26.7%, 22.6% and 11.5% belonged to IB3, IB3/6 and IB4 serotypes, respectively. Particularly, two novel chimeric serotypes, IB3/6-IB2 and IB2-IB4-IB2, were found in 77 and 8 porB1B+ isolates. Two hundred and twelve (97.7%) of the porB1B+ isolates were presented G120 and/or A121 mutations with 163 (76.9%) at both sites. Interestingly, within the 77 porB1B+ isolates belonging to IB3/6-IB2 serotype, 15 were discovered to possess novel deletions at both A121 and N122 sites. All the replacement mutations at these sites in PorB1B were correlated with resistance and the deletion mutation showed the highest resistance. N. gonorrhoeae isolates circulating in Eastern China include a sole PorB1A serotype (IA6) and five PorB1B serotypes. Multiple mutations in porB1B genes, including novel A121 and N122 deletions, are correlated with high levels of penicillin and tetracycline resistance.
    BMC Infectious Diseases 11/2010; 10:323. DOI:10.1186/1471-2334-10-323 · 2.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Gonorrhea, which may become untreatable due to multiple resistance to available antibiotics, remains a public health problem worldwide. Precise methods for typing Neisseria gonorrhoeae, together with epidemiological information, are crucial for an enhanced understanding regarding issues involving epidemiology, test of cure and contact tracing, identifying core groups and risk behaviors, and recommending effective antimicrobial treatment, control, and preventive measures. This review evaluates methods for typing N. gonorrhoeae isolates and recommends various methods for different situations. Phenotypic typing methods, as well as some now-outdated DNA-based methods, have limited usefulness in differentiating between strains of N. gonorrhoeae. Genotypic methods based on DNA sequencing are preferred, and the selection of the appropriate genotypic method should be guided by its performance characteristics and whether short-term epidemiology (microepidemiology) or long-term and/or global epidemiology (macroepidemiology) matters are being investigated. Currently, for microepidemiological questions, the best methods for fast, objective, portable, highly discriminatory, reproducible, typeable, and high-throughput characterization are N. gonorrhoeae multiantigen sequence typing (NG-MAST) or full- or extended-length porB gene sequencing. However, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and Opa typing can be valuable in specific situations, i.e., extreme microepidemiology, despite their limitations. For macroepidemiological studies and phylogenetic studies, DNA sequencing of chromosomal housekeeping genes, such as multilocus sequence typing (MLST), provides a more nuanced understanding.
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