Members of the tristetraprolin (TTP) family of CCCH tandem zinc finger (TZF) proteins can bind directly to AU-rich elements (ARE) in mRNA, causing deadenylation and destabilization of the transcripts to which they bind. We describe here a novel fourth mammalian member of the TTP protein family, designated ZFP36L3, which could also bind directly to ARE-containing RNAs and could promote the deadenylation and degradation of ARE-containing target RNAs. Zfp36l3 transcript expression was detected only in placenta and extraembryonic tissues in the mouse. It was expressed throughout development in the placenta and was particularly highly expressed in the cells of the labyrinthine layer of the trophoblastic placenta. Unlike the other family members, the expression of a ZFP36L3-green fluorescent protein fusion protein was entirely cytoplasmic when expressed in 293 cells, even in the presence of the CRM1-dependent nuclear export inhibitor leptomycin B. Zfp36l3 was located on the mouse X chromosome; a similar predicted gene was present on the rat X chromosome, but there was no evidence for a similar gene in humans. ZFP36L3 may thus be a rodent-specific or even murine-specific member of the TTP protein family. Its presumed role in placental physiology may be unique to rodents or murine rodents, but this role may be subsumed by other family members in nonrodents.
"Its targets include TNF , GM-CSF  and IL-3  mRNAs. AREs can also be recognized by TIS11B, TIS11D and ZFP36L3 –. Recently, we and others showed that like mammalian TIS11 proteins, dTIS11 binds to AREs and accelerates the deadenylation and decay of ARE-containing mRNAs. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Many RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) dynamically shuttle between the nucleus and the cytoplasm, often exerting different functions in each compartment. Therefore, the nucleo-cytoplasmic distribution of RBPs has a strong impact on their activity. Here we describe the localization and the shuttling properties of the tandem zinc finger RBP dTIS11, which is the Drosophila homolog of mammalian TIS11 proteins. Drosophila and mammalian TIS11 proteins act as destabilizing factors in ARE-mediated decay. At equilibrium, dTIS11 is concentrated mainly in the cytoplasm. We show that dTIS11 is a nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling protein whose nuclear export is mediated by the exportin CRM1 through the recognition of a nuclear export signal (NES) located in a different region comparatively to its mammalian homologs. We also identify a cryptic Transportin-dependent PY nuclear localization signal (PY-NLS) in the tandem zinc finger region of dTIS11 and show that it is conserved across the TIS11 protein family. This NLS partially overlaps the second zinc finger ZnF2. Importantly, mutations disrupting the capacity of the ZnF2 to coordinate a Zinc ion unmask dTIS11 and TTP NLS and promote nuclear import. All together, our results indicate that the nuclear export of TIS11 proteins is mediated by CRM1 through diverging NESs, while their nuclear import mechanism may rely on a highly conserved PY-NLS whose activity is negatively regulated by ZnF2 folding.
PLoS ONE 08/2013; 8(8):e71686. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0071686 · 3.23 Impact Factor
"In human, in addition to ZFP36, there are two other genes namely ZFP36L1 and ZFP36L2. In rodents a fourth gene, Zfp36L3, has been identified and shown to be expressed only in placenta . ZFP36 proteins have been showed to bind to AU rich elements (ARE) present in the 3′UTR region of several mRNA encoding cytokines like Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha (TNFα) or the Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor (GM-CSF) and this binding involves the tandem zinc finger domain of the proteins , , , , . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ZFP36 constitutes a small family of RNA binding proteins (formerly known as the TIS11 family) that target mRNA and promote their degradation. In mammals, ZFP36 proteins are encoded by four genes and, although they show similar activities in a cellular RNA destabilization assay, there is still a limited knowledge of their mRNA targets and it is not known whether or not they have redundant functions. In the present work, we have used the Xenopus embryo, a model system allowing gain- and loss-of-function studies, to investigate, whether individual ZFP36 proteins had distinct or redundant functions. We show that overexpression of individual amphibian zfp36 proteins leads to embryos having the same defects, with alteration in somites segmentation and pronephros formation. In these embryos, members of the Notch signalling pathway such as hairy2a or esr5 mRNA are down-regulated, suggesting common targets for the different proteins. We also show that mouse Zfp36 protein overexpression gives the same phenotype, indicating an evolutionary conserved property among ZFP36 vertebrate proteins. Morpholino oligonucleotide-induced loss-of-function leads to defects in pronephros formation, reduction in tubule size and duct coiling alterations for both zfp36 and zfp36l1, indicating no functional redundancy between these two genes. Given the conservation in gene structure and function between the amphibian and mammalian proteins and the conserved mechanisms for pronephros development, our study highlights a potential and hitherto unreported role of ZFP36 gene in kidney morphogenesis.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(1):e54550. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0054550 · 3.23 Impact Factor
"There are four mammalian members of the ZFP36 family that include the prototype, ZFP36 (Tis11, TTP, Nup475, GOS24), ZFP36L1 (Tis11b, BERG36, ERF-1, BRF-1) and ZFP36L2 (Tis11d, ERF-2, BRF-2). The fourth family member described in rodents, ZFP36L3, is expressed in mouse placenta, but apparently not in human placenta or other human tissues . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The ZFP36/Tis11 family of zinc-finger proteins regulate cellular processes by binding to adenine uridine rich elements in the 3' untranslated regions of various mRNAs and promoting their degradation. We show here that ZFP36L1 expression is largely extinguished during the transition from B cells to plasma cells, in a reciprocal pattern to that of ZFP36 and the plasma cell transcription factor, BLIMP1. Enforced expression of ZFP36L1 in the mouse BCL1 cell line blocked cytokine-induced differentiation while shRNA-mediated knock-down enhanced differentiation. Reconstruction of regulatory networks from microarray gene expression data using the ARACNe algorithm identified candidate mRNA targets for ZFP36L1 including BLIMP1. Genes that displayed down-regulation in plasma cells were significantly over-represented (P = <0.0001) in a set of previously validated ZFP36 targets suggesting that ZFP36L1 and ZFP36 target distinct sets of mRNAs during plasmacytoid differentiation. ShRNA-mediated knock-down of ZFP36L1 in BCL1 cells led to an increase in levels of BLIMP1 mRNA and protein, but not for mRNAs of other transcription factors that regulate plasmacytoid differentiation (xbp1, irf4, bcl6). Finally, ZFP36L1 significantly reduced the activity of a BLIMP1 3' untranslated region-driven luciferase reporter. Taken together, these findings suggest that ZFP36L1 negatively regulates plasmacytoid differentiation, at least in part, by targeting the expression of BLIMP1.
PLoS ONE 12/2012; 7(12):e52187. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0052187 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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