Do blood cells mimic gene expression profile alterations known to occur in muscular adaptation to endurance training?
ABSTRACT Exercise is known to upregulate mRNA synthesis for carnitine palmitoyl transferase1 (CPT1) and possibly also other mitochondrial carnitine acyltransferases in muscle tissue. The aim of this study was to test whether such an adaptation of oxidative metabolism in skeletal muscle is a systemic process and consequently, also affects other cells. Messenger RNA levels of five genes [carnitine palmitoyl transferases 1 and 2 (CPT1 and CPT2), carnitine acetyltransferase (CRAT), carnitine palmitoyltransferase 2 (CPT2), microsomal carnitine palmitoyltransferase (GRP58) and organic cation transporter (OCTN2)] were determined with quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in blood cells and in muscle biopsy samples from six cross country skiers before and 6 months after a high volume/low intensity exercise training, when training had elicited a significantly slower rate of lactate accumulation. Quantitative real time PCR showed that levels of mRNA in blood cells correlated significantly (CPT1B: P< 0.001) with those in muscle tissue from the same donors. After 6-months training, there was a 15-fold upregulation of CPT1B mRNA, a six to ninefold increase of CRAT mRNA, of CPT2 mRNA, GRP58 mRNA, and of OCTN2 mRNA. The observation of a concordant stimulation of CPT1, CPT2, CRAT, GRP58 and OCTN2 transcription in blood cells and muscle tissue after 6-month-endurance training leads the hypothesis of a common stimulation mechanism other than direct mechanical stress or local chemical environment, but rather humoral factors.
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ABSTRACT: The stress response is a critical factor in the training of equine athletes; it is important for performance and for protection of the animal against physio-pathological disorders.In this study, the molecular mechanisms involved in the response to acute and strenuous exercise were investigated using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) was used to detect modifications in transcription levels of the genes for matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) and interleukin 8 (IL-8), which were derived from previous genome-wide expression analysis. Significant up-regulation of these two genes was found in 10 horses that had completed a race of 90-120 km in a time-course experimental design. These results suggest that MMP-1 and IL-8 are both involved in the exercise-induced stress response, and this represents a starting point from which to understand the adaptive responses to this phenomenon.BMC Physiology 07/2009; 9:12.