Increased oxygenation of intracranial tumors by efaproxyn (efaproxiral), an allosteric hemoglobin modifier: In vivo EPR oximetry study
ABSTRACT To determine quantitatively the changes in oxygenation of intracranial tumors induced by efaproxiral, an allosteric hemoglobin modifier. Efaproxiral reduces hemoglobin-oxygen binding affinity, which facilitates oxygen release from hemoglobin into surrounding tissues and potentially increases the pO(2) of the tumors.
The study was performed on 10 male Fisher 344 rats with 9L intracranial tumors. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) oximetry was used to measure quantitatively the changes in the pO(2) in the tumors. Lithium phthalocyanine (LiPc) crystals were implanted in the tumors and in the normal brain tissue in the opposite hemispheres. We monitored the cerebral pO(2) starting 7 to 10 days after the tumor cells were implanted. NMR imaging determined the position and size of tumor in the brain. After an initial baseline EPR measurement, efaproxiral (150 mg/kg) was injected intravenously over 15 minutes, and measurements of tumor and normal brain oxygen tension were made alternately at 10-minute intervals for the next 60 minutes; the procedure was repeated for 6 consecutive days.
Efaproxiral significantly increased the pO(2) of both the intracranial tumors and the normal brain tissue on all days. The maximum increase was reached at 52.9 to 59.7 minutes and 54.1 to 63.2 minutes after injection, respectively. The pO(2) returned to baseline values at 106 to 126.5 minutes after treatment. The maximum tumor and normal tissue pO(2) values achieved after efaproxiral treatment from Day 1 through Day 6 ranged from 139.7 to 197.7 mm Hg and 103.0 to 135.9 mm Hg, respectively. The maximum increase in tumor tissue pO(2) values from Day 2 to Day 5 was greater than the maximum increase in normal tissue pO(2).
We obtained quantitative data on the timing and extent of efaproxiral-induced changes in the pO(2) of intracerebral 9L tumors. These results illustrate a unique and useful capability of in vivo EPR oximetry to obtain repeated noninvasive measurements of tumor oxygenation over a number of days. The information on the dynamics of tumor pO(2) after efaproxiral administration illustrates the ability of efaproxiral to increase intracranial tumor oxygenation.
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ABSTRACT: Purpose Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) oximetry using variable length multi-probe implantable resonator (IR), was used to investigate the temporal changes in the ischemic and contralateral brain pO2 during stroke in rats. Material and methods The EPR signal to noise ratio (S/N) of the IR with four sensor loops at a depth of up to11 mm were compared with direct implantation of lithium phthalocyanine (LiPc, oximetry probe) deposits in vitro. These IRs were used to follow the temporal changes in pO2 at two sites in each hemisphere during ischemia induced by left middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in rats breathing 30% O2 or 100% O2. Results The S/N ratios of the IRs were significantly greater than the LiPc deposits. A similar pO2 at two sites in each hemisphere prior to the onset of ischemia was observed in rats breathing 30% O2. However, a significant decline in the pO2 of the left cortex and striatum occurred during ischemia but no change in the pO2 of the contralateral brain was observed. A significant increase in the pO2 of only the contralateral non-ischemic brain was observed in the rats breathing 100% O2. No significant difference in the infarct volume was evident between the animals breathing 30% O2 or 100% O2 during ischemia. Conclusions EPR oximetry with IRs can repeatedly assess temporal changes in the brain pO2 at four sites simultaneously during stroke. This oximetry approach can be used to test and develop interventions to rescue ischemic tissue by modulating cerebral pO2 during stroke.Magnetic Resonance Imaging 06/2014; 32(5). DOI:10.1016/j.mri.2014.02.010 · 2.02 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Hypoxia is a critical hallmark of glioma, and significantly compromises treatment efficacy. Unfortunately, techniques for monitoring glioma pO2 to facilitate translational research are lacking. Furthermore, poor prognoses of patients with malignant glioma, in particular glioblastoma multiforme, warrant effective strategies that can inhibit hypoxia and improve treatment outcome. EPR oximetry using implantable resonators was implemented for monitoring pO2 in normal cerebral tissue and U251 glioma in mice. Breathing carbogen (95% O2 + 5% CO2 ) was tested for hyperoxia in the normal brain and glioma xenografts. A new strategy to inhibit glioma growth by rationally combining gemcitabine and MK-8776, a cell cycle checkpoint inhibitor, was also investigated. The mean pO2 of left and right hemisphere were approximately 56 - 69 mmHg in the normal cerebral tissue of mice. The mean baseline pO2 of U251 glioma on the first and fifth day of measurement was 21.9 ± 3.7 and 14.1 ± 2.4 mmHg, respectively. The mean brain pO2 including glioma increased by at least 100% on carbogen inhalation, although the response varied between the animals over days. Treatment with gemcitabine + MK-8776 significantly increased pO2 and inhibited glioma growth assessed by MRI. In conclusion, EPR oximetry with implantable resonators can be used to monitor the efficacy of carbogen inhalation and chemotherapy on orthotopic glioma in mice. The increase in glioma pO2 of mice breathing carbogen can be used to improve treatment outcome. The treatment with gemcitabine + MK-8776 is a promising strategy that warrants further investigation. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.International Journal of Cancer 04/2015; 136(7). DOI:10.1002/ijc.29132 · 5.01 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Brain metastases (BM) occur in 20% to 40% of patients with cancer and result in significant morbidity and poor survival. The main therapeutic options include surgery, whole brain radiotherapy, stereotactic radiosurgery and chemotherapy. Although significant progress has been made in diagnostic and therapeutic methods, the prognosis in these patients remains poor. Furthermore, the poor penetrability of chemotherapy agents through the blood brain barrier (BBB) continues to pose a challenge in the management of this disease. Preclinical evidence suggests that new targeted treatments can improve local tumor control but our clinical experience with these agents remains limited. In addition, several clinical studies with these novel agents have produced disappointing results. This review will examine the knowledge of targeted therapies in BM. The preclinical and clinical evidence of their use in BM induced by breast cancer, non-small cell lung cancer and melanoma will be presented. In addition, we will discuss the role of antiangiogenic and radiosensitising agents in the treatment of BM and the current strategies available to increase BBB permeability. A better understanding of the mechanism of action of these agents will help us to identify the best targets for testing in future clinical studies.Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 11/2012; 1835(1). DOI:10.1016/j.bbcan.2012.10.005 · 4.66 Impact Factor