Serum procalcitonin levels are elevated in esophageal cancer patients with postoperative infectious complications.
ABSTRACT The normal systemic inflammatory response to surgical stimuli often makes early diagnosis of postoperative infections difficult.
We investigated whether serum procalcitonin (PCT) levels may be a useful marker of bacterial infections in patients after invasive surgery.
The subjects were 40 patients who had undergone radical surgery for esophageal carcinoma by a right thoracoabdominal approach. Nine patients were diagnosed to have a postoperative infection during the first 7 days after surgery. Changes in serum PCT levels were compared between the group diagnosed to have postoperative infection (infection group) and the group without infection (noninfection group).
The postoperative serum PCT levels were significantly higher in the infection group than in the noninfection group (ANOVA: p < 0.01). Serum PCT peaked on postoperative day (POD) 5 in the infection group (8.7 +/- 8.2 ng/ml, mean +/- SD) and on POD 1 in the noninfection group (0.5 +/- 0.5 ng/ml). No significant differences were found between the two groups in leukocyte count, serum CRP or cytokine levels. The receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve was constructed for infection identification. The area under the ROC curve for peak postoperative PCT was 0.968, and at a cutoff value of 2.0 ng/ml, the sensitivity was 89% and the specificity was 93%.
Serum PCT levels may be useful for the early diagnosis of postoperative infectious complications.
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ABSTRACT: Early diagnosis of sepsis and its differentiation from the noninfective SIRS is very important in order that treatment can be initiated in a timely and appropriate way. In this study we investigated standard haematological and biochemical parameters and thromboelastography (TEG) in patients who had undergone surgical resection of the oesophagus to find out if changes in any of these parameters could help in early differentiation between SIRS and sepsis development. We enrolled 43 patients (aged 41-74 years) of whom 38 were evaluable. Blood samples were obtained on the morning of surgery and then at 24-hour intervals for the next 6 days. Samples were analysed for procalcitonin (PCT), C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL- 6), aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT) , lactate, white blood count (WBC), D-dimers, antithrombin (AT), international normalised ratio (INR), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and parameters of TEG. Significant differences between patients who developed sepsis during this period (9 patients) and SIRS were found in ALT on Day 1, in AST on Days 1-4, in PCT on Days 2-6; in CRP on Days 3-6; in IL-6 on Days 2-5; in leucocytes on Days 2, 3 and 6; and in D-dimers on Days 2 and 4. Significance values ranged from p < 0.0001 to p < 0.05. Sequential measurements of ALT, AST, PCT and IL-6 during the early postoperative period can be used for early differentiation of sepsis and postoperative SIRS after oesophagectomy. Among the coagulation parameters measured, only D-dimer concentrations appeared to be helpful in this process. TEG does not seem to be a useful early predictor of sepsis development; however it can be used to differentiate sepsis and SIRS from Day 5 after surgery.BMC Anesthesiology 06/2012; 12:12. · 1.19 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Procalcitonin (PCT) has been proposed as a marker of infection and was studied in neutropenic patients. This study investigated its role in non-neutropenic febrile cancer patients (NNCPs). METHODS: Between July 2009 and July 2010, a total of 248 NNCPs with fever were studied. PCT was measured in plasma within 24 hours of fever onset and 4 to 7 days thereafter, using a Kryptor system with a lower limit of quantitation of 0.075 ng/mL. Patients' clinical, microbiological, and radiological data were reviewed to make the diagnosis and were correlated with PCT levels. RESULTS: This study included 30 patients with bloodstream infection (BSI), 60 with localized bacterial infection, 141 with no documented infection, and 8 with tumor-related fever. Most patients (98%) were inpatients or admitted to the hospital during the study. Patients with BSI had significantly higher PCT levels than did those with documented localized infections (P = .048) and no documented infection (P = .011). PCT levels were significantly higher in septic patients than in those without sepsis (P = .012). Patients with stage IV disease or metastasis had significantly higher baseline PCT levels than did those with early stages of cancer (P < .05). PCT levels dropped significantly in patients with bacterial infections in response to antibiotics (P < .0001). CONCLUSIONS: Baseline PCT levels are predictive of BSI and sepsis in NNCPs. They may be predictors of metastasis and advanced cancer. Subsequent decrease in PCT levels in response to antibiotics is suggestive of bacterial infection. Larger trials are needed to confirm the results of this pilot study. Cancer 2012. © 2012 American Cancer Society.Cancer 05/2012; · 5.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: : Although the early diagnosis of anastomotic leak is a key point in reducing its clinical consequences, in daily practice, anastomotic leak diagnosis is often late. : The aim of this study was to determine whether procalcitonin and C-reactive protein are good predictors of anastomotic leak in colorectal surgery. : This is a prospective observational study. : This study was conducted by a specialized colorectal multidisciplinary team of a tertiary teaching hospital. : A series of 205 consecutive patients who underwent elective colorectal surgery in a specialized unit was prospectively analyzed. The following data were collected: demographic, surgical, ASA class, POSSUM, and morbidity. During the first 5 postoperative days, procalcitonin, C-reactive protein, leukocytes, platelets, and vital signs were evaluated daily. : Daily assessment of clinical variable and serological data were conducted in the first 5 postoperative days. : The primary outcome measure was the area under the curve at receiving operating characteristic curve analysis of the different variables in relation to the anastomotic leak. : Anastomotic leak was detected in 17 (8.3%) patients; 11(5.4%) of the patients had a major anastomotic leak (need for drainage or reoperation). None of the variables evaluated were shown to be reliable in the early detection of anastomotic leak, considering both minor and major (maximum area under the curve <0.80). In contrast, when considering only major anastomotic leaks, procalcitonin and C-reactive protein were reliable predictors on postoperative days 3 to 5 (p < 0.0001, area under the curve >0.80). The best combination was procalcitonin at postoperative day 5 (area under the curve = 0.86), with a cutoff of 0.31 ng/mL, resulting in a 100% sensitivity, 72% specificity, 100% negative predictive value, and 17% positive predictive value. : Only symptomatic patients were investigated to rule out anastomotic leakage. : Procalcitonin and C-reactive protein are both reliable predictors of major anastomotic leak after colorectal resection, although procalcitonin is more accurate. Raised procalcitonin and C-reactive protein serum concentration on postoperative days 3 to 5 renders necessary a careful evaluation of the patient before discharge.Diseases of the Colon & Rectum 04/2013; 56(4):475-83. · 3.34 Impact Factor