Protein kinase B [PKB, also known as Akt (PKB/Akt)] and calcineurin (CaN) are postulated to play important roles in integrating intracellular signaling in skeletal muscle in response to disuse and increased muscle loading. These experiments investigated changes in signal transduction of the downstream pathways of PKB/Akt and CaN during recovery following disuse-induced muscle atrophy. A 10-day period of hindlimb unloading (HLU) via tail suspension (male rats) was used to produce soleus muscle atrophy. Muscle recovery was achieved by returning animals to normal ambulation for 3-10 days. HLU resulted in significant muscle atrophy and a slow-to-fast fiber transition as revealed by appearance of type IId/x and IIb myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms. Muscle mass in HLU animals recovered to control (Con) levels after 10 days of reloading, but the fast-to-slow shift in muscle MHC was incomplete, as indicated by the continued presence of type IId/x MHC. Ten days of HLU resulted in a significant decrease (-43%) in muscle levels of phosphorylated PKB/Akt. In contrast, muscle levels of phosphorylated PKB/Akt were greater (+56%) in HLU than in Con animals early after the onset of reloading (3 days). Soleus levels of phosphorylated p70S6K were significantly higher (+26%) in HLU animals after 3 days of muscle reloading. Muscle levels of phosphorylated PKB/Akt and phosphorylated p70S6K returned to Con levels by day 10 of recovery. Moreover, muscle CaN levels were significantly higher than Con levels after 10 days of muscle reloading. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that PKB/Akt and its downstream mediators are active in the regrowth of muscle mass during the early periods of recovery from muscle atrophy. Our data support the concept that CaN is involved in muscle remodeling during the later phases of recovery from disuse muscle atrophy.
"Animals with overexpression of FOXO have reduced muscle mass and this appears to be related to increases in MAFbx and MuRF1 (see above). Increased FOXO transcript levels in rodents were reported after spaceflight (Allen et al., 2009) and decreased phosphorylation of AKT levels were reported after 10 days HS (Sugiura et al., 2005). Alterations in the IGF1-AKT-mTOR pathway are linked directly to alterations in the ubiquitin proteasome ligases, MAFbx and MuRF1 (Kandarian and Jackman, 2006). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Maintenance of skeletal muscle is essential for health and survival. There are marked losses of skeletal muscle mass as well as strength and physiological function under conditions of low mechanical load, such as space flight, as well as ground based models such as bed rest, immobilization, disuse, and various animal models. Disuse atrophy is caused by mechanical unloading of muscle and this leads to reduced muscle mass without fiber attrition. Skeletal muscle stem cells (satellite cells) and myonuclei are integrally involved in skeletal muscle responses to environmental changes that induce atrophy. Myonuclear domain size is influenced differently in fast and slow twitch muscle, but also by different models of muscle wasting, a factor that is not yet understood. Although the myonuclear domain is 3-dimensional this is rarely considered. Apoptosis as a mechanism for myonuclear loss with atrophy is controversial, whereas cell death of satellite cells has not been considered. Molecular signals such as myostatin/SMAD pathway, MAFbx, and MuRF1 E3 ligases of the ubiquitin proteasome pathway and IGF1-AKT-mTOR pathway are 3 distinctly different contributors to skeletal muscle protein adaptation to disuse. Molecular signaling pathways activated in muscle fibers by disuse are rarely considered within satellite cells themselves despite similar exposure to unloading or low mechanical load. These molecular pathways interact with each other during atrophy and also when various interventions are applied that could alleviate atrophy. Re-applying mechanical load is an obvious method to restore muscle mass, however how nutrient supplementation (e.g., amino acids) may further enhance recovery (or reduce atrophy despite unloading or ageing) is currently of great interest. Satellite cells are particularly responsive to myostatin and to growth factors. Recently, the hibernating squirrel has been identified as an innovative model to study resistance to atrophy.
Frontiers in Physiology 03/2014; 5:99. DOI:10.3389/fphys.2014.00099 · 3.53 Impact Factor
"These observations were consistent with the results of the present study. On the other hand, there is other report that showed a decrease in relative expression of p-Akt in rat soleus muscle following 10 days of HS.10 It is still unclear that physiological function of p-Akt during unloading-associated muscle atrophy. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Microcurrent electrical nerve stimulation (MENS) has been used to facilitate recovery from skeletal muscle injury. However, the effects of MENS on unloading-associated atrophied skeletal muscle remain unclear. Effects of MENS on the regrowing process of unloading-associated atrophied skeletal muscle were investigated. Male C57BL/6J mice (10-week old) were randomly assigned to untreated normal recovery (C) and MENS-treated (M) groups. Mice of both groups are subjected to continuous hindlimb suspension (HS) for 2 weeks followed by 7 days of ambulation recovery. Mice in M group were treated with MENS for 60 min 1, 3, and 5 days following HS, respectively, under anesthesia. The intensity, the frequency, and the pulse width of MENS were set at 10 μA, 0.3 Hz, and 250 msec, respectively. Soleus muscles were dissected before and immediately after, 1, 3 and 7 days after HS. Soleus muscle wet weight and protein content were decreased by HS. The regrowth of atrophied soleus muscle in M group was faster than that in C group. Decrease in the reloading-induced necrosis of atrophied soleus was facilitated by MENS. Significant increases in phosphorylated levels of p70 S6 kinase and protein kinase B (Akt) in M group were observed, compared with C group. These observations are consistent with that MENS facilitated regrowth of atrophied soleus muscle. MENS may be a potential extracellular stimulus to activate the intracellular signals involved in protein synthesis.
International journal of medical sciences 08/2013; 10(10):1286-94. DOI:10.7150/ijms.5985 · 2.00 Impact Factor
"However, we speculate that the limited difference in the magnitude of the inflammatory response between mTOR+/− and WT mice, is an unlikely mediator for the differences in protein balance and mass during the recovery period. In general, our data are consistent with previous reports concluding that recovery is associated with an increase in the phosphorylation-activation state of various elements of the IGF-I/AKT/mTOR pathway , ,  and that locally delivered IGF-I can enhance muscle regeneration during the recovery period . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study addressed the hypothesis that reducing mTOR, as seen in mTOR heterozygous (+/-) mice, would exaggerate the changes in protein synthesis and degradation observed during hindlimb immobilization as well as impair normal muscle regrowth during the recovery period. Atrophy was produced by unilateral hindlimb immobilization and data compared to the contralateral gastrocnemius. In wild-type (WT) mice, the gradual loss of muscle mass plateaued by day 7. This response was associated with a reduction in basal protein synthesis and development of leucine resistance. Proteasome activity was consistently elevated, but atrogin-1 and MuRF1 mRNAs were only transiently increased returning to basal values by day 7. When assessed 7 days after immobilization, the decreased muscle mass and protein synthesis and increased proteasome activity did not differ between WT and mTOR(+/-) mice. Moreover, the muscle inflammatory cytokine response did not differ between groups. After 10 days of recovery, WT mice showed no decrement in muscle mass, and this accretion resulted from a sustained increase in protein synthesis and a normalization of proteasome activity. In contrast, mTOR(+/-) mice failed to fully replete muscle mass at this time, a defect caused by the lack of a compensatory increase in protein synthesis. The delayed muscle regrowth of the previously immobilized muscle in the mTOR(+/-) mice was associated with a decreased raptor•4EBP1 and increased raptor•Deptor binding. Slowed regrowth was also associated with a sustained inflammatory response (e.g., increased TNFα and CD45 mRNA) during the recovery period and a failure of IGF-I to increase as in WT mice. These data suggest mTOR is relatively more important in regulating the accretion of muscle mass during recovery than the loss of muscle during the atrophy phase, and that protein synthesis is more sensitive than degradation to the reduction in mTOR during muscle regrowth.
PLoS ONE 06/2012; 7(6):e38910. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0038910 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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