Seeing and hearing others and oneself talk

Laboratory of Computational Engineering, Helsinki University of Technology, PO Box 9203, FIN-02015 HUT, Finland.
Cognitive Brain Research (Impact Factor: 3.77). 06/2005; 23(2-3):429-35. DOI: 10.1016/j.cogbrainres.2004.11.006
Source: PubMed


We studied the modification of auditory perception in three different conditions in twenty subjects. Observing other person's discordant articulatory gestures deteriorated identification of acoustic speech stimuli and modified the auditory percept, causing a strong McGurk effect. A similar effect was found when the subjects watched their own silent articulation in a mirror and acoustic stimuli were simultaneously presented to their ears. Interestingly, a smaller but significant effect was even obtained when the subjects just silently articulated the syllables without visual feedback. On the other hand, observing other person's or one's own concordant articulation and silently articulating a concordant syllable improved identification of the acoustic stimuli. The modification of auditory percepts caused by visual observation of speech and silently articulating it are both suggested to be due to the alteration of activity in the auditory cortex. Our findings support the idea of a close relationship between speech perception and production.

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    • "Just as visual influences on auditory speech processing have long been reported (e.g., Sumby and Pollack, 1954; see Navarra et al., 2012 for review), recent reports have also shown similar effects from articulatory information. For example, subjects' own silent articulations (Sams et al., 2005; Sato et al., 2013; Scott et al., 2013) influence auditory perception in similar ways as seeing visual speech (although see Mochida et al., 2013). Moreover, receiving haptic or tactile input related to another person's articulatory movements can also influence auditory speech processing (Fowler and Dekle, 1991; Gick et al., 2008; Gick and Derrick, 2009; Ito et al., 2009; Treille et al., 2014). "
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    ABSTRACT: Speech researchers have long been interested in how auditory and visual speech signals are integrated, and the recent work has revived interest in the role of speech production with respect to this process. Here, we discuss these issues from a developmental perspective. Because speech perception abilities typically outstrip speech production abilities in infancy and childhood, it is unclear how speech-like movements could influence audiovisual speech perception in development. While work on this question is still in its preliminary stages, there is nevertheless increasing evidence that sensorimotor processes (defined here as any motor or proprioceptive process related to orofacial movements) affect developmental audiovisual speech processing. We suggest three areas on which to focus in future research: (i) the relation between audiovisual speech perception and sensorimotor processes at birth, (ii) the pathways through which sensorimotor processes interact with audiovisual speech processing in infancy, and (iii) developmental change in sensorimotor pathways as speech production emerges in childhood.
    Frontiers in Psychology 08/2014; 5:812. DOI:10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00812 · 2.80 Impact Factor
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    • "These designs have typically involved delayed or covert speech production. As evidence exists showing similarities in neural activity in overt and covert production tasks, Tian and Poeppel (2010, 2012) including the generation of internal models (Sams et al., 2005; Tian and Poeppel, 2010), covert production often provides a viable substitute for overt production tasks. However, in terms of SMI, the two tasks are different and may not share all the same neurophysiology (Ganushchak et al., 2011), especially in some pathological conditions with compromised sensorimotor control such as stuttering (Max et al., 2003; Loucks and De Nil, 2006; Watkins et al., 2008; Hickok et al., 2011; Cai et al., 2014; Connally et al., 2014). "
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    ABSTRACT: Activity in anterior sensorimotor regions is found in speech production and some perception tasks. Yet, how sensorimotor integration supports these functions is unclear due to a lack of data examining the timing of activity from these regions. Beta (~20 Hz) and alpha (~10 Hz) spectral power within the EEG μ rhythm are considered indices of motor and somatosensory activity, respectively. In the current study, perception conditions required discrimination (same/different) of syllables pairs (/ba/ and /da/) in quiet and noisy conditions. Production conditions required covert and overt syllable productions and overt word production. Independent component analysis was performed on EEG data obtained during these conditions to (1) identify clusters of μ components common to all conditions and (2) examine real-time event-related spectral perturbations (ERSP) within alpha and beta bands. 17 and 15 out of 20 participants produced left and right μ-components, respectively, localized to precentral gyri. Discrimination conditions were characterized by significant (pFDR < 0.05) early alpha event-related synchronization (ERS) prior to and during stimulus presentation and later alpha event-related desynchronization (ERD) following stimulus offset. Beta ERD began early and gained strength across time. Differences were found between quiet and noisy discrimination conditions. Both overt syllable and word productions yielded similar alpha/beta ERD that began prior to production and was strongest during muscle activity. Findings during covert production were weaker than during overt production. One explanation for these findings is that μ-beta ERD indexes early predictive coding (e.g., internal modeling) and/or overt and covert attentional/motor processes. μ-alpha ERS may index inhibitory input to the premotor cortex from sensory regions prior to and during discrimination, while μ-alpha ERD may index sensory feedback during speech rehearsal and production.
    Frontiers in Psychology 07/2014; 5:656. DOI:10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00656 · 2.80 Impact Factor
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    • "Given that audio-visual interference should be sensitive to the visual divergence from the auditory information, the interaction between [p] and [t] and between [p] and [k] will be more prominent than between [t] and [k]. If the between-phoneme distance is common to the visual and articulatory domains, the audio-articulatory interaction might occur in the same manner as the audio-visual interaction, as Sams et al. have suggested [23]. However, our experimental results revealed interesting contrasts in syllable intelligibility when articulating and watching incongruent syllables. "
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    ABSTRACT: Speech perception is thought to be linked to speech motor production. This linkage is considered to mediate multimodal aspects of speech perception, such as audio-visual and audio-tactile integration. However, direct coupling between articulatory movement and auditory perception has been little studied. The present study reveals a clear dissociation between the effects of a listener's own speech action and the effects of viewing another's speech movements on the perception of auditory phonemes. We assessed the intelligibility of the syllables [pa], [ta], and [ka] when listeners silently and simultaneously articulated syllables that were congruent/incongruent with the syllables they heard. The intelligibility was compared with a condition where the listeners simultaneously watched another's mouth producing congruent/incongruent syllables, but did not articulate. The intelligibility of [ta] and [ka] were degraded by articulating [ka] and [ta] respectively, which are associated with the same primary articulator (tongue) as the heard syllables. But they were not affected by articulating [pa], which is associated with a different primary articulator (lips) from the heard syllables. In contrast, the intelligibility of [ta] and [ka] was degraded by watching the production of [pa]. These results indicate that the articulatory-induced distortion of speech perception occurs in an articulator-specific manner while visually induced distortion does not. The articulator-specific nature of the auditory-motor interaction in speech perception suggests that speech motor processing directly contributes to our ability to hear speech.
    PLoS ONE 07/2013; 8(7):e68619. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0068619 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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