Markers of inflammation and their clinical significance.

Section of Atherosclerosis and Lipoprotein Research, Baylor College of Medicine, 6565 Fannin, M.S. A-601, Houston, TX 77030-3498, USA.
Atherosclerosis Supplements (Impact Factor: 9.67). 06/2005; 6(2):21-9. DOI: 10.1016/j.atherosclerosissup.2005.02.005
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Inflammation plays an important role in the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis and the development of atherosclerotic events. Understanding the molecular basis of inflammation has led to the identification of markers that may also serve as new targets of therapy in the management of atherothrombotic disease. Inflammatory markers, such as C-reactive protein (CRP), have been shown to predict future cardiovascular events in individuals with and without established cardiovascular disease (CVD). Statins substantially reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and recently their anti-inflammatory properties have been investigated. In this paper, we discuss biomarkers implicated in the inflammatory process leading to atherothrombosis, including CRP, adiponectin, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), CD40 ligand and lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A(2) (Lp-PLA(2)), and the effect of statins on these markers and their potential relationship to cardiovascular events.

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    ABSTRACT: It is not yet clear whether intestinal mucosal permeability changes with advancing age in humans. This question is of high importance for drug and nutrition approaches for older adults. Our main objective was to answer the question if small intestinal barrier integrity deteriorates with healthy aging. We conducted a cross-sectional study including the pooled data of 215 nonsmoking healthy adults (93 female/122 male), 84 of whom were aged between 60 and 82 years. After a 12-h fast, all participants ingested 10 g of lactulose and 5 g of mannitol. Urine was collected for 5 h afterwards and analyzed for test sugars. The permeability index (PI = lactulose/mannitol) was used to assess small intestinal permeability. Low-grade inflammation defined by high-sensitivity C-reactive protein ≥1 mL/L and kidney function (estimated glomerular filtration rate) were determined in the older age group. The PI was similar in older compared to younger adults (P = 0.887). However, the urinary recovery of lactulose and mannitol was lower in the older adults and this change was neither associated with urinary volume nor glomerular filtration rate. The PI was not significantly correlated with low-grade inflammation or presence of noninsulin-dependent type 2 diabetes. However, it significantly deteriorated in the copresence of both conditions compared to low-grade inflammation alone (P = 0.043) or type 2 diabetes alone (P = 0.015). Small intestinal mucosal barrier does not deteriorate with age per se. But low-grade inflammation coupled with minor disease challenges, such as type 2 diabetes, can compromise the small intestinal barrier.
    04/2014; 2(4). DOI:10.1002/phy2.281
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    Nutrition 12/2012; 29(3). DOI:10.1016/j.nut.2012.08.009 · 3.05 Impact Factor
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    Atherosclerosis 08/2007; 193(1):142-50. DOI:10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2006.05.045 · 3.97 Impact Factor