Usefulness of the Japanese Respiratory Society guidelines for community pneumonia: a retrospective analysis of community-acquired pneumonia between 2000 and 2002 in a general hospital.
ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to investigate the causative organisms of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) diagnosed between 2000 and 2002 and to evaluate the Japanese Respiratory Society (JRS) guidelines.
A total of 124 cases of CAP diagnosed during the study period were analyzed, and the results were compared with those of a previous study by the authors' research group. Determination of the causative organisms of CAP was based on Gram stain, morphology of colonies, quantitative culture of sputum, identification of bacterial isolates, and serological tests.
During the study period, the causative organisms were identified in 42 cases (33.8%). Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis were the major causative organisms. Patients were classified into three groups based on the severity of CAP according to the JRS guidelines. The survival rates of patients with moderate and severe CAP were significantly lower than those of the mild group as evaluated by the Kaplan-Meier method (moderate vs mild, 70% vs 100%; severe vs mild, 40% vs 100%; P < 0.001 for both). Seven patients died during the study, and the risk factors were old age, bedridden status with cerebral infarction, and microaspiration, which was associated with recurrent pneumonia within 17 days.
This study indicates that the JRS guidelines for CAP are useful for treating patients with CAP in Japan.
- SourceAvailable from: Kosuke Kosai[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To determine the differences in the clinical features of bacterial pneumonia patients between patients co-infected with influenza virus or not co-infected. Fifteen adult patients with bacterial pneumonia (7 men and 8 women) who also tested positive for influenza virus antigen were compared with those with bacterial pneumonia alone (n=28). Complications with chronic lung diseases were more frequently found in bacterial pneumonia patients with influenza virus infection, compared with those who had bacteria pneumonia alone. Statistical differences were also found in body temperature, and heart rates between the two groups. CRP levels, chest X-ray infiltrates and the severity of pneumonia, as determined using the criteria of the Japan Respiratory Society (JRS) and/or the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA), were also significantly worse in patients of bacterial pneumonia infected with influenza virus, than in those who had bacterial pneumonia alone. The severity of pneumonia in patients co-infected with influenza virus and bacteria was significantly higher than in those infected with bacteria alone. These data suggested that the influenza virus infection enhanced the bacterial pneumonia. Further study of the pathogenesis of the synergic interaction between influenza virus and bacteria is warranted.Internal Medicine 02/2007; 46(13):953-8. · 0.97 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A high frequency of drug-resistant pneumococci has been reported in Asian countries. Few data on the drug-resistance or serotype of pneumococcal strains responsible for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), however, are available for the past two decades in Japan. Susceptibility to antibiotics and the genotype of antibiotic-resistant genes and serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates from 114 adult patients with CAP were examined in a nationwide study in Japan between 2001 and 2003. Most of the cases were non-bacteraemic pneumonia and the case fatality rate was 4.4%. The most frequent genotype of the pbp gene was pbp1a + 2x + 2b (gPRSP; 36.8%) followed by pbp 2x (28.1%) and of the macrolide-resistant gene, it was ermB (50.0%). The most common serotype was 19F (29.1%), followed by serotype 23F (13.2%), 6B (12.3%) and 3 (11.4%). The coverage of serotypes of isolates by a 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV) would be 82.5% in these patients with CAP. Most of strains with serotypes 19F and 23F were gPRSP. A cluster of serotype 3 strains associated with the pbp 2x and ermB gene was also noted. A high frequency of altered pbp gene mutations or of macrolide-related genes and a high serotype coverage by the 23-valent PPV found in our study of pneumococcal pneumonia facilitates attempts to increase the coverage rate of the 23-valent PPV in adults older than 65 years in Japan.Respirology 08/2006; 11(4):429-36. · 2.78 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: To summarize published data on the clinical and economic burden, epidemiology, antimicrobial resistance levels, serotype prevalence, and prevention strategies for pneumococcal disease among adults in Asia. METHODS: We performed a systematic search of the PubMed database for relevant, peer-reviewed articles published between January 1995 and December 2011, covering China, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Pakistan, the Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, Thailand, and Vietnam. RESULTS: Taiwan and Thailand had the most comprehensive epidemiological data on adult pneumococcal disease. Very little relevant data were found for Indonesia, Pakistan, the Philippines, and Vietnam; surveillance is urgently needed in these countries. The emergence and spread of resistance emphasize the importance of vaccination to prevent infection in adults at increased risk for serious pneumococcal disease. Vaccination policies and opinions on the efficacy of vaccination vary widely in Asian countries, although a new option in the form of a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine is now available. CONCLUSIONS: Increased awareness of the public health and economic benefits of pneumococcal vaccination is critically needed to help both the public and policymakers in making changes to vaccination policies in the region. Maximizing access to pneumococcal vaccines will decrease the number of hospitalizations, complications, and deaths associated with pneumococcal disease.International journal of infectious diseases: IJID: official publication of the International Society for Infectious Diseases 02/2013; · 2.17 Impact Factor