Hypertension in renal disease: Diagnosis and treatment
ABSTRACT Hypertension is a common sequela to renal disease in cats and dogs, affecting as many as 61% cats and 93% of dogs, respectively. Undiagnosed and untreated, elevations in blood pressure can have deleterious effects on the brain and heart as well as promote further renal injury. In this article, we discuss the identification of patients at risk for hypertension as well as methods for measuring blood pressure and the treatment of hypertensive patients.
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Article: Indirekt blodtrycksmätning på katt
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ABSTRACT: Two indirect blood pressure measurement techniques, Doppler (DOP) sphygmomanometry and oscillometry, applied at the ventral coccygeal artery were compared with simultaneous direct blood pressure measurements at the dorsal pedal artery in 10 anesthetized, captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus). The DOP method was moderately accurate, with relatively little bias (mean difference 3.8 mmHg) and 88.6% of the DOP systolic arterial pressure measurements being within 10 mmHg of the direct systolic arterial measurement. With the oscillometric (OM) method, 89.2% of the mean arterial pressure measurements were within 10 mmHg of the direct measurement and had the least bias (mean difference 2.3 mmHg), 80.7% of the systolic measurements were within 10 mmHg of the direct measurement and had the second least bias (mean difference 2.3 mmHg), and 59% of the diastolic measurements were within 10 mmHg of the direct measurement and had significant bias (mean difference 7.3 mmHg). However, DOP showed relatively poor precision (SD 11.2 mmHg) compared with OM systolic (SD 8.0 mmHg), diastolic (SD 8.6 mmHg), and mean (SD 5.7 mmHg). Both techniques showed a linear relationship with the direct technique measurements over a wide range of blood pressures. The DOP method tended to underestimate systolic measurements below 160 mmHg and overestimate systolic measurements above 160 mmHg. The OM method tended to underestimate mean pressures below 160 mm Hg, overestimate mean pressures above 160 mmHg, underestimate systolic pressures below 170 mmHg, overestimate systolic pressures above 170 mmHg, and underestimate diastolic pressures throughout the measured blood pressure range. Indirect blood pressure measurement using the ventral coccygeal artery, particularly when using an OM device for mean and systolic arterial pressure, may be useful in the clinical assessment of cheetahs when monitoring trends over time, but caution should be taken when interpreting individual values.Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 12/2013; 44(4):928-35. DOI:10.1638/2012-0292R1.1 · 0.32 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To determine if blood pressure measured with an ultrasonic Doppler flow detector (Doppler) is in good agreement with directly measured blood pressures in anesthetized cats. Prospective observational study. University veterinary teaching hospital. Thirty-nine cats undergoing routine neutering. Cats were divided into 2 groups; 19 cats enrolled in Group A had a 24-Ga catheter inserted into a dorsal pedal artery; 20 cats in Group B had a 20-Ga catheter placed in a femoral artery. In both groups, systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressures were directly measured using a validated pressure measurement system. Indirect values were compared against direct blood pressure measurements. There was no difference between groups. Overall, there was poor agreement with a significant bias observed between Doppler and directly measured blood pressures. For the systolic arterial pressure the bias was -8.8 with limits of agreements (LOA) of -39.3 and 21.7. For the mean arterial pressure, the bias was 14.0 with LOA of -13.9 and 41.9. For the diastolic arterial pressure, the bias was 27.9 with LOA of -4.4 and 60.2. Methodology, weight, sex, and replicates did not have a significant effect on the difference between indirect and direct measurements in any model. Results suggest poor agreement between Doppler values and directly measured blood pressures in anesthetized cats. Use of Doppler in cats could be misleading and readings should be interpreted with caution in a clinical context.04/2014; DOI:10.1111/vec.12161