Sequential antibodies to potassium channels and glutamic acid decarboxylase in neuromyotonia.
ABSTRACT A patient with thymoma-associated neuromyotonia and voltage-gated potassium channel (Kv1.2 and Kv1.6) antibodies by immunoprecipitation and rat brain immunolabeling was treated successfully with immunoadsorption and cyclophosphamide. Curiously, glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies, absent at onset, appeared later. Stiff-person syndrome was absent, but fast blink reflex recovery suggested enhanced brainstem excitability. The range of antibodies produced in thymoma-associated neuromyotonia is richer, and the timing of antibody appearance more complex, than previously suspected.
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ABSTRACT: The pathogenic role of antibodies in multiple sclerosis (MS) is still controversial. We transferred to mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), animal model of MS, IgG antibodies purified from a MS patient presenting a dramatic clinical improvement during relapse after selective IgG removal with immunoadsorption. Passive transfer of patient's IgG exacerbated motor paralysis and increased mouse central nervous system (CNS) inflammation and demyelination. Binding of patient's IgG was demonstrated in mouse CNS, with a diffuse staining of white matter oligodendrocytes. These data support a growing body of evidence that antibodies can play an important role in the pathobiology of MS.Journal of neuroimmunology 06/2013; · 2.84 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Morvan syndrome is characterized by central, autonomic, and peripheral hyperactivity. Examples of central hyperactivity include confusion, memory problems, hallucinations, insomnia, and myoclonus; examples of autonomic hyperactivity include hyperhidrosis and fluctuations in blood pressure; examples of peripheral hyperreactivity include clinical or electrophysiological evidence of painful cramps, myokymia, and neuromyotonia. We present a typical case of Morvan syndrome and the first detailed review of the clinical and therapeutic literature of all 27 cases from the English language literature. Morvan syndrome is considered to be an autoimmune disorder and antibodies against voltage-gated potassium channels are found in most cases. Oral immunomodulatory therapy, intravenous immunoglobulin, and plasmapharesis may be entertained. Thymoma is found in approximately 50% of cases and thymectomy may be curative as in our particular case.Journal of clinical neuromuscular disease 06/2012; 13(4):214-27.
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ABSTRACT: Ion channels are complex transmembrane proteins that orchestrate the electrical signals necessary for normal function of excitable tissues, including the central nervous system, peripheral nerve, and both skeletal and cardiac muscle. Progress in molecular biology has allowed cloning and expression of genes that encode channel proteins, while comparable advances in biophysics, including patch-clamp electrophysiology and related techniques, have made the functional assessment of expressed proteins at the level of single channel molecules possible. The role of ion channel defects in the pathogenesis of numerous disorders has become increasingly apparent over the last two decades. Neurological channelopathies are frequently genetically determined but may also be acquired through autoimmune mechanisms. All of these autoimmune conditions can arise as paraneoplastic syndromes or independent from malignancies. The pathogenicity of autoantibodies to ion channels has been demonstrated in most of these conditions, and patients may respond well to immunotherapies that reduce the levels of the pathogenic autoantibodies. Autoimmune channelopathies may have a good prognosis, especially if diagnosed and treated early, and if they are non-paraneoplastic. This review focuses on clinical, pathophysiologic and therapeutic aspects of autoimmune ion channel disorders of the nervous system.DNA research: an international journal for rapid publication of reports on genes and genomes 09/2011; 9(3):458-67. · 1.73 Impact Factor