Tobacco-Specific Nitrosamines and Their Pyridine-N-glucuronides in the Urine of Smokers and Smokeless Tobacco Users
ABSTRACT Tobacco-specific nitrosamines are believed to play a significant role as causes of cancer in people who use tobacco products. Whereas the uptake of one tobacco-specific nitrosamine, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone, has been shown by analysis of its metabolites in urine, there are no published studies on urinary levels of N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN), N'-nitrosoanatabine (NAT), and N'-nitrosoanabasine (NAB) or their metabolites in human urine. We developed a method for quantitation of NNN, NAT, NAB, and their pyridine-N-glucuronides NNN-N-Gluc, NAT-N-Gluc, and NAB-N-Gluc in human urine. Total NNN (NNN plus NNN-N-Gluc) was assayed using 5-methyl-N'-nitrosonornicotine as internal standard. Urine was treated with beta-glucuronidase. Following solvent partitioning and solid-phase extraction, total NNN was determined using gas chromatography with nitrosamine-selective detection. Total NAT and total NAB were quantified in the same samples. Separate quantitation of NNN and NNN-N-Gluc was accomplished by extraction of the urine with ethyl acetate before beta-glucuronidase hydrolysis; NNN was analyzed in the ethyl acetate extract, and after enzyme treatment, NNN released from NNN-N-Gluc was quantified in the extracted urine. Separate analyses of NAT, NAT-N-Gluc, NAB, and NAB-N-Gluc proceeded similarly. Analyte identities were confirmed by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Mean levels of total NNN, NAT, and NAB in the urine of 14 smokers were (pmol/mg creatinine) 0.18 +/- 0.22, 0.19 +/- 0.20, and 0.040 +/- 0.039, respectively, whereas the corresponding amounts in the urine of 11 smokeless tobacco users were 0.64 +/- 0.44, 1.43 +/- 1.10, and 0.23 +/- 0.19, respectively. Pyridine-N-glucuronides accounted for 59% to 90% of total NNN, NAT, and NAB. The results of this study show the presence of NNN, NAT, NAB, and their pyridine-N-glucuronides in human urine and provide a quantitative method for application in mechanistic and epidemiologic studies of the role of tobacco-specific nitrosamines in human cancer.
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ABSTRACT: Two molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) that we recently described to be class-selective for glucuronides have been successfully exploited for the molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction (MISPE) of testosterone glucuronide (TG) from its parent drug (T) in urine. Both sorbents targeted the glucuronate fragment but feature different functional groups for binding the carboxylate anion, MIP1, a neutral 1,3-diarylurea group, and MIP2, a cationic imidazolium functionality. MISPE-HPLC-UV methods developed using both sorbents allowed the extraction of TG from its parent compound in urine samples spiked at 150, 300 or 600 ng mL(-1) for TG and at 50 ng mL(-1) for T. By comparing the performance of the two sorbents it came out that MIP1 is a more suitable SPE packing than MIP2, since it isolated the glucuronide with a higher precision (RSD 2-5%, n = 3) and with an enhanced enrichment factor (EF = 4.2). On the basis of these results, the imprinted receptor MIP1 can be applied for the direct extraction of TG in doping and clinical analysis and to selectively capture any other relevant glucuronated metabolite avoiding tedious deconjugation steps prior to quantification.The Analyst 01/2012; 137(1):249-54. DOI:10.1039/c1an15606c · 3.91 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The present study was aimed to evaluate the cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) levels in the scalp hair samples of adolescent boys age ranged 12-15 years, chewing different smokeless tobacco (SLT) products. For comparative purpose, boys of the same age group who did not consume any SLT products were selected as referents. The concentrations of Cd and Pb in SLT products and the scalp hair samples were measured by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrophotometer (ETAAS) after microwave-assisted acid digestion. The validity and accuracy of the methodology were checked by certified reference materials (CRMs). The difference between experimental and certified values of both elements was not significant (p > 0.05). The resulted data indicated that the adolescent boys who consumed different SLT products have two- to threefold higher levels of Cd and Pb in the scalp hair samples as compared to the referent boys (p < 0.01). The adolescent chewing different SLT products have 82.2-110 and 60.6-94.5 % higher levels of Cd and Pb, respectively, in their scalp hair as related to the referents.