Myocardial ischemia/reperfusion-injury, a clinical view on a complex pathophysiological process
ABSTRACT Myocardial infarction is the major cause of death in the world. Over the last two decades, coronary reperfusion therapy has become established for the management of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). However, restoration of blood flow to previously ischemic myocardium results in the so-called ischemia/reperfusion (IR)-injury. The different clinical manifestations of this injury include myocardial necrosis, arrhythmia, myocardial stunning and endothelial- and microvascular dysfunction including the no-reflow phenomenon. The pathogenesis of ischemia/reperfusion injury consists of many mechanisms. Recently, there's increasing evidence for an important role in IR-injury on hypercontracture induced by high levels of cytosolic calcium or by low concentrations of ATP. In the last years, many studies on experimental models were investigated, but the clinical trials confirming these effects remain spare. Recently, the beneficial effect of Na(+)/H(+)-exchange inhibitor cariporide and of the oxygen-derived free radical (ODFR) scavenger vitamin E on coronary bypass surgery-induced IR-injury were demonstrated. Also recently, the beneficial effect of allopurinol on the recovery of left ventricular function after rescue balloon-dilatation was demonstrated. The beneficial effect of magnesium and trimetazidine on IR-injury remains controversial. The beneficial effect of adenosine remains to be further confirmed. There's also increasing interest in agentia combining the property of upregulating NO-synthase (e.g. L-arginine) and restoring the balance between NO and free radicals (e.g. tetrahydrobiopterin). One of such agents could be folic acid. In this review article the authors give an overview of the recent insights concerning pathogenesis and therapeutic possibilities to prevent IR-induced injury.
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ABSTRACT: Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an incretin peptide secreted from intestinal L-cells, whose potent plasma glucose-lowering action has prompted intense efforts to develop GLP-1 receptor-targeting drugs for treatment of diabetic hyperglycemia. More recently, GLP-1 and its analogues have been shown to exert cardiovascular effects in a number of experimental models. Here we tested exendin-4 (Exe-4), a peptide agonist at GLP-1 receptors, and GLP-1(9-36) amide, the primary endogenous metabolite of GLP-1 (both in the concentration range 0.03-3.0 nM), for their protective effects against ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) in an isolated rat heart preparation. When administered, the agents were only present for the first 15 min of a 120 min reperfusion period (postconditioning protocol). Exe-4, but not GLP-1(9-36) amide, showed a strong infarct-limiting action (from 33.2% +/-2.7% to 14.5% +/-2.2% of the ischemic area, p<0.05). This infarct size-limiting effect of Exe-4 was abolished by exendin(9-39) (Exe(9-39)), a GLP-1 receptor antagonist. In contrast, both Exe-4 and GLP-1(9-36) amide were able to augment left ventricular performance (left ventricular developed pressure and rate-pressure product) during the last 60 min of reperfusion. These effects were only partially antagonized by Exe(9-39). We suggest that Exe-4, in addition to being currently exploited in treatment of diabetes, may present a suitable candidate for postconditioning trials in clinical settings of IRI. The divergent agonist effects of Exe-4 and GLP-1(9-36), along with correspondingly divergent antagonistic efficacy of Exe(9-39), seem consistent with the presence of more than one type of GLP-1 receptor in this system.Regulatory Peptides 02/2008; 146(1-3):243-9. DOI:10.1016/j.regpep.2007.10.001 · 2.01 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Asiatic acid (AA), a triterpene, is known to be cytotoxic to several tumor cell lines. AA induces dose- and time-dependent cell death in U-87 MG human glioblastoma. This cell death occurs via both apoptosis and necrosis. The effect of AA may be cell type-specific as AA-induced cell death was mainly apoptotic in colon cancer RKO cells. AA-induced glioblastoma cell death is associated with decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, activation of caspase-9 and -3, and increased intracellular free Ca2+. Although treatment of glioblastoma cells with the caspase inhibitor zVAD-fmk completely abolished AA-induced caspase activation, it did not significantly block AA-induced cell death. AA-induced cell death was significantly prevented by an intracellular Ca2+ inhibitor, BAPTA/AM. Taken together, these results indicate that AA induces cell death by both apoptosis and necrosis, with Ca2+-mediated necrotic cell death predominating.Cell Biology and Toxicology 12/2006; 22(6):393-408. DOI:10.1007/s10565-006-0104-2 · 1.97 Impact Factor
- World Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery 01/2013; 03(05):171-179. DOI:10.4236/wjcs.2013.35035