What are the sensitivity and specificity of serologic tests for celiac disease? Do sensitivity and specificity vary in different populations? Gastroenterology 128(4 suppl 1):S25-S32
ABSTRACT A number of serologic tests are available commercially for identifying individuals who require an intestinal biopsy examination to diagnose celiac disease (CD). The aim of this study was to determine which test, or combination of tests, was most sensitive and specific for this purpose. We performed a literature review of studies that determined the sensitivity and specificity of serologic tests for CD. Studies that compared biopsy examination-confirmed cases of CD with controls with normal intestinal histology were selected for analysis. Sensitivities and specificities for the antigliadin tests were highly variable. Immunoglobulin (Ig)G-based antigliadin (AGA) tests generally were poor in both parameters whereas the IgA-based test was poorly sensitive but more specific. The IgA endomysium (EMA-IgA) and tissue transglutaminase (TTG-IgA) tests were both highly sensitive and specific with values for both parameters exceeding 95% in most studies. There were no identifiable differences between adults and children with respect to these tests. There was no evidence that a combination of tests was better than a single test using either the EMA IgA or TTG IgA. Either the EMA-IgA or TTG-IgA test is most useful for identifying individuals with CD. The variability and generally lower accuracy associated with the AGA tests make them unsuitable for screening purposes. There is no advantage to using a panel of tests as opposed to a single test. Because these data were obtained largely from studies conducted in a research setting, it is possible the tests will be less accurate when used in the clinical setting.
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- "Anti-endomysial antibodies were sought using direct immunofluorescence on monkey esophagus (Bio-Rad, Milan, Italy); positive staining around the smooth muscle was considered positive. Anti-transglutaminase antibodies were assessed by ELISA (Eurospital, Trieste, Italy); titres above 7 arbitrary units were considered positive  . "
ABSTRACT: Background and Aims. Hepatic hemangioma (HH) has a widely ranging prevalence. The etiology is unclear; however, associations with autoimmune disorders have been described. We aimed at evaluating the prevalence of HH in celiac disease. Methods. Ninety-seven consecutive patients with celiac disease (18 M, 79 F, median age 41, and range 17-84 years) underwent liver ultrasound between January 2011 and 2012. The findings were compared with those of 1352 nonceliac patients (581 M, 771 F, median age 50, and range 16-94 years), without liver disease or previously detected HH, who underwent US in the same period. Results. Ultrasonographic findings consistent with HH were observed in 14 celiac patients (14.4%), a prevalence significantly higher than in controls (69 cases, 5.1%) (P = 0.0006). Subgroup analysis showed that, among women, the prevalence of HH was 16.4% in the celiac disease group (13/79) compared with 5.9% in controls (46/771) (P = 0.002). In celiac setting, HH had a median diameter of 1.3 cm and presented as a single lesion in 12 cases (86%). Conclusions. Our findings are consistent with a significantly higher prevalence of HH in celiac patients. Although mechanisms underlying this association remain unclear, autoimmune and metabolic processes, as well as alterations of gut-liver axis equilibrium, could play a role.Gastroenterology Research and Practice 01/2015; 2015:1-6. DOI:10.1155/2015/749235 · 1.75 Impact Factor
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- "Thus, it may be argued that this condition does not represent a pre-coeliac state. However, when Hill et al. reviewed 26 studies of CD serology, they observed a median AGA specificity of 93% . "
ABSTRACT: The intestinal microbiota has been proposed to play a pathogenic role in coeliac disease (CD). Although antibiotics are common environmental factors with a profound impact on intestinal microbiota, data on antibiotic use as a risk factor for subsequent CD development are scarce. In this population-based case--control study we linked nationwide histopathology data on 2,933 individuals with CD (Marsh stage 3; villous atrophy) to the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register to examine the association between use of systemic antibiotics and subsequent CD. We also examined the association between antibiotic use in 2,118 individuals with inflammation (Marsh 1--2) and in 620 individuals with normal mucosa (Marsh 0) but positive CD serology. All individuals undergoing biopsy were matched for age and sex with 28,262 controls from the population. Antibiotic use was associated with CD (Odds ratio [OR] = 1.40; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.27-1.53), inflammation (OR = 1.90; 95% CI = 1.72--2.10) and normal mucosa with positive CD serology (OR = 1.58; 95% CI = 1.30--1.92). ORs for prior antibiotic use in CD were similar when we excluded antibiotic use in the last year (OR = 1.30; 95% CI = 1.08-1.56) or restricted to individuals without comorbidity (OR = 1.30; 95% CI = 1.16 -- 1.46). The positive association between antibiotic use and subsequent CD but also with lesions that may represent early CD suggests that intestinal dysbiosis may play a role in the pathogenesis of CD. However, non-causal explanations for this positive association cannot be excluded.BMC Gastroenterology 07/2013; 13(1):109. DOI:10.1186/1471-230X-13-109 · 2.37 Impact Factor
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- "Currently, the detection of atrophic alterations of the duodenal and jejunal mucosa, equivalent to type III Marsh lesions observed on biopsy, remains the gold standard in the diagnosis of CD (38). In the outpatient clinic at the University of São Paulo School of Medicine, six cases with positive serological tests, lacking either HLA DQ2/DQ8 haplotypes or villous atrophy, as well as one case with a positive serological test, HLA DQ2, and without villous atrophy, have been followed-up to evaluate the possibility of latent disease (23,34). "
ABSTRACT: Celiac disease is a permanent enteropathy caused by the ingestion of gluten, which leads to an immunemediated inflammation of the small intestine mucosa. The prevalence of celiac disease varies among different nations and ethnic backgrounds, and its diversity is determined by genetic and environmental factors. São Paulo city is one of the largest cities in the world, with a vast population and an important history of internal migratory flow from other Brazilian regions, as well as immigration from other, primarily European, countries, resulting in significant miscegenation. The aim of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of adults with undiagnosed celiac disease among blood donors of São Paulo by collecting information on the ancestry of the population studied. The prevalence of celiac disease was assessed by screening for positive IgA transglutaminase and IgA endomysium antibodies in 4,000 donors (volunteers) in the Fundação Pró-Sangue Blood Center of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. The antibody-positive subjects were asked to undergo a small bowel biopsy. Of the 4,000 subjects, twenty-four had positive tests, although both antibody tests were not always concordant. For example, ten subjects were positive for IgA tissue transglutaminase only. In twenty-one positive patients, duodenal biopsies were performed, and the diagnosis of celiac disease was confirmed in fourteen patients (Marsh criteria modified by Oberhuber). In this group, 67% claimed to have European ancestry, mainly from Italy, Portugal and Spain. The prevalence of celiac disease is at least 1:286 among supposedly healthy blood bank volunteers in São Paulo, Brazil.Clinics (São Paulo, Brazil) 09/2012; 67(9):1013-8. DOI:10.6061/clinics/2012(09)05 · 1.19 Impact Factor