Catecholamine clearance from alveolar spaces of rat and human lungs
ABSTRACT Although aerosolized beta-adrenergic agonists have been used as a therapy for the resolution of pulmonary edema, the mechanisms of catecholamine clearance from the alveolar spaces of the lung are not well known.
To determine whether catecholamine clearance from the alveolar spaces is correlated with the fluid transport capacity of the lung.
Albumin solution containing epinephrine (10(-7)M) or norepinephrine (10(-7)M) was instilled into the alveolar spaces of isolated rat and human lungs. Alveolar fluid clearance rate was estimated by the progressive increase in the albumin concentration over 1 h. Catecholamine clearance rate was estimated by the changes in catecholamine concentration and alveolar fluid volume over 1 h.
The norepinephrine clearance rate was faster than the epinephrine clearance rate in the rat and human lungs. In the rat lungs, amiloride (a sodium channel blocker) caused a greater decrease in alveolar fluid clearance and epinephrine clearance rate than propranolol (a nonselective beta-adrenergic antagonist). Although propranolol and phentolamine (an alpha-adrenergic antagonist), and 5-(N-ethyl-N-isoprophyl)amiloride (a Na+/H+ antiport blocker) changed neither the alveolar fluid clearance nor the norepinephrine clearance rate, amiloride and benzamil (a sodium channel blocker) decreased both clearance rates. As in the rat lungs, amiloride decreased alveolar fluid and norepinephrine clearance rates in the human lungs.
These results indicate that the catecholamine clearance rate from the alveolar spaces is correlated with alveolar fluid clearance in rat and human lungs.
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ABSTRACT: Ketamine is a broadly used anaesthetic for analgosedation. Accumulating clinical evidence shows that ketamine causes pulmonary edema with unknown mechanisms. We measured the effects of ketamine on alveolar fluid clearance in human lung lobes ex vivo. Our results showed that intratracheal instillation of ketamine markedly decreased the reabsorption of 5% bovine serum albumin instillate. In the presence of amiloride (a specific ENaC blocker), fluid resolution was not further decreased, suggesting that ketamine could decrease amiloride-sensitive fraction of AFC associated with ENaC. Moreover, we measured the regulation of amiloride-sensitive currents by ketamine in A549 cells using whole-cell patch clamp mode. Our results suggested that ketamine decreased amiloride-sensitive Na+ currents (ENaC activity) in a dose-dependent fashion. These data demonstrate that reduction in lung ENaC activity and lung fluid clearance following administration of ketamine may be the crucial step of the pathogenesis of resultant pulmonary edema.BioMed Research International 10/2011; 2011:460596. DOI:10.1155/2011/460596 · 2.71 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objective To investigate the effect of phenylephrine (an α-adrenergic agonist) on alveolar fluid clearance (AFC) in ventilator-induced lung injury and the possible mechanism involved. Methods A total of 170 male Wistar rats were randomly allocated into 17 groups (n=10) using random number tables. Short-term (40 minutes) mechanical ventilation with high tidal volume (HVT) was performed to induce lung injury, impair active Na+ transport and lung liquid clearance in the rats. Unventilated rats served as controls. To demonstrate the effect of phenylephrine on AFC, phenylephrine at different concentrations (1×10(-5), 1×10(-6), 1×10(-7), 1×10(-8), and 1×10(-9) mol/L) was injected into the alveolar space of the HVT ventilated rats. To identify the influence of adrenergic antagonists, Na(+) channel, and microtubular system on the effect of phenylephrine, phenylephrine at 1×10(-5) mol/L combined with prazosin (an α1-adrenergic antagonist, 1×10(-4) mol/L), yohimbine (an α2-adrenergic antagonist, 1×10(-4) mol/L), atenolol (a β1- adrenergic antagonist, 1×10(-5) mol/L), ICI-118551 (an β2-adrenergic antagonist, 1×10(-5) mol/L), amiloride (a Na+ channel blocker, 5×10(-4) mol/L), ouabain (a Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase blocker, 5×10(-4) mol/L), colchicine (a microtubular disrupting agent, 0.25 mg/100 g body weight), or β-lumicolchicine (an isomer of colchicine, 0.25 mg/100 g body weight) were perfused into the alveolar space of the rats ventilated with HVT for 40 minutes. AFC and total lung water content were measured. Results Basal AFC in control rats was (17.47±2.56)%/hour, which decreased to (9.64± 1.32)%/hour in HVT ventilated rats (P=0.003). The perfusion of phenylephrine at 1×10(-8), 1×10(-7), 1×10(-6), and 1×10(-5) mol/L significantly increased the AFC in HVT ventilated rats (all P<0.05). This effect of phenylephrine on AFC was suppressed by prazosin, atenolol, and ICI-118551 in HVT ventilated rats by 53%, 31%, and 37%, respectively (all P<0.05). The AFC-stimulating effect of phenylephrine was lowered by 33% and 42% with amiloride and ouabain, respectively (both P<0.05). Colchicine significantly inhibited the effect of phenylephrine (P=0.031). Conclusion Phenylephrine could increase the AFC in HVT-ventilated rats and accelerate the absorption of pulmonary edema.Chinese Medical Sciences Journal 03/2013; 28(1):1-6. DOI:10.1016/S1001-9294(13)60011-5
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ABSTRACT: Salt absorption via alveolar epithelial Na(+) channels (ENaC) is a critical step for maintaining an airspace free of flooding. Previously, we found that 8-(4-chlorophenylthio)-guanosine-3',5'-cyclic monophosphate-Na (CPT-cGMP) activated native and heterologous ENaC. To investigate the potential pharmacological relevance, we applied this compound intratracheally to human lungs and found that ex vivo alveolar fluid clearance was increased significantly. Furthermore, this compound eliminated self-inhibition in human lung H441 cells and in oocytes expressing human αβγ but not δβγ channels. To further elucidate this novel mechanism, we constructed mutants abolishing (β(ΔV348) and γ(H233R)) or augmenting (α(Y458A) and γ(M432G)) self-inhibition. The mutants eliminating self-inhibition lost their responses to CPT-cGMP, whereas those enhancing self-inhibition facilitated the stimulatory effects of this compound. CPT-cGMP was unable to activate a high P(o) mutant (β(S520C)) and plasmin proteolytically cleaved channels. Our data suggest that elimination of self-inhibition of αβγ ENaC may be a novel mechanism for CPT-cGMP to stimulate salt reabsorption in human lungs.American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology 05/2011; 45(5):1007-14. DOI:10.1165/rcmb.2011-0004OC · 4.11 Impact Factor