The Longitudinal Effects of Work-Family Conflict and Positive Spillover on Depressive Symptoms Among Dual-Earner Couples.

Department of Psychology, Portland State University, OR 97207, USA.
Journal of Occupational Health Psychology (Impact Factor: 2.07). 05/2005; 10(2):138-54. DOI: 10.1037/1076-8998.10.2.138
Source: PubMed


This study assessed longitudinal and cross-sectional relationships between work-family conflict, positive spillover, and depression in a national sample of 234 dual-earner couples. The authors also assessed crossover effects (i.e., the transmission of emotions, affect, or stress from 1 member of a dyad to another) of work-family conflict and positive spillover on spouses' depression. Two general findings of the study were that (a) positive spillover has a stronger impact on depression than does work-family conflict, and (b) the effects of spouses' positive spillover were more strongly related to decreased depression than were the effects of one's own positive spillover. Significant longitudinal effects were related to the crossover of positive spillover on decreased spouse depression.

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    • "Though there have been several versions of positive spillover (e.g. Grzywacz and Bass, 2003; Grzywacz and Marks, 2000; Hammer et al., 2005; Hill, 2005), the work-family enrichment construct generally contains developmental, affective, and capital/efficiency components (Carlson et al., 2006). Of the dispositional antecedents that predict work-family linkages, affect has been of particular prominence in the literature. "
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose - Despite the abundance of dispositional affect, work-family, and leadership research, little has been done to integrate these literatures. Based primarily on conservation of resources theory, which suggests individuals seek to acquire and maintain resources to reduce stress, the purpose of this paper is to provide an empirical examination of the relationships between leader dispositional affect, leader work-family spillover, and leadership. Design/methodology/approach - Survey data were collected from a diverse sample of managers from a broad set of occupational groups (e. g. financial, government, library). Regression and Monte Carlo procedures were used to estimate model direct and indirect effects. Findings - The results indicate that dispositional affect is a strong predictor of both work-family spillover and leadership. Further, the relationship between negative/positive affect and leadership was partially mediated by work-family conflict/enrichment. Research limitations/implications - Data were cross-sectional self-report, which does not allow for causal interpretations and may increase the risk of common method bias. Practical implications - This study helps address why leaders experience both stress and benefits from multiple work and family demands, as well as why leaders engage in particular forms of leadership, such as passive and active leadership behaviors. Originality/value - This study provides the first empirical examination of leader's dispositional affect, work-family spillover, and leadership, and suggests that manager's dispositional affect and work-family spillover have meaningful relationships with leader behavior across situations.
    Leadership & Organization Development Journal 07/2014; 35(5):410-428. DOI:10.1108/LODJ-06-12-0074 · 0.63 Impact Factor
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    • "In the empirical literature to date, only two studies have assessed both WF enrichment and WF conflict simultaneously. Voydanoff (2005) found that only WF conflict related to decreased marital satisfaction in individuals. However, Van Steenbergen and colleagues (2007) found that WF enrichment was a positive predictor of men's satisfaction with their home life, whereas WF conflict was a negative predictor of women's satisfaction with their home life. "
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    ABSTRACT: This study was designed to examine whether spouses' work-to-family (WF) enrichment experiences account for their own and their partner's marital satisfaction, beyond the effects of WF conflict. Data were collected from both partners of 215 dual-earner couples with children. As hypothesized, structural equation modeling revealed that WF enrichment experiences accounted for variance in individuals' marital satisfaction, over and above WF conflict. In line with our predictions, this positive link between individuals' WF enrichment and their marital satisfaction was mediated by more positive marital behavior, and more positive perceptions of the partner's behavior. Furthermore, evidence for crossover was found. Husbands who experienced more WF enrichment were found to show more marital positivity (according to their wives), which related to increased marital satisfaction in their wives. No evidence of such a crossover effect from wives to husbands was found. The current findings not only highlight the added value of studying positive spillover and crossover effects of work into the marriage, but also suggest that positive spillover and crossover effects on marital satisfaction might be stronger than negative spillover and crossover are. These results imply that organizational initiatives of increasing job enrichment may make employees' marital life happier and can contribute to a happy, healthy, and high-performing workforce. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
    Journal of Occupational Health Psychology 04/2014; 19(2):182-94. DOI:10.1037/a0036011 · 2.07 Impact Factor
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    • "Yet an emerging body of research has attempted to integrate work–family interface literature with crossover theories and demonstrated the transmission of work and family experiences between members of marital dyads (Hammer, Allen, & Grigsby, 1997; Hammer, Bauer, & Grandey, 2003; Hammer, Cullen, Neal, Sinclair, & Shafiro, 2005). For example, utilising a lagged panel design, Hammer et al. (2005) assessed the cross-sectional and longitudinal effects of work–family interface (WFC and positive spillover) on individuals' as well as their spouses' depressive symptoms. Analyses on cross-sectional effects showed that husbands' work-to-family conflict at Time 2 was positively related to wives' depression at Time 2. Longitudinally, husbands' work-to-family positive spillover at Time 1 was a significant predictor of wives' depression at Time 2, and wives' family-to-work positive spillover at Time 1 was a significant predictor of husbands' depression at Time 2. Results also showed that partner's positive spillover had a stronger impact on depression than one's own positive spillover. "
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of the present study is to examine the crossover effects from one partner's work-family interface (work-family conflict [WFC] and work-family enrichment [WFE]) to the other partner's four outcomes (psychological strain, life satisfaction, marital satisfaction and job satisfaction) in a sample of Chinese dual-earner couples. Married couples (N = 361) completed a battery of questionnaires, including the work-family interface scale, the psychological strain scale, the life, marital, as well as job satisfaction scale. Results from the actor-partner interdependence model (APIM) analyses showed that wives' WFE was negatively associated with husbands' psychological strain, and positively associated with husbands' life, marital and job satisfaction. Furthermore, husbands' WFC was negatively related to wives' marital satisfaction, whereas husbands' WFE was positively related to wives' marital satisfaction. Theoretical and practical implications were discussed, and future research directions were provided. © 2014 International Union of Psychological Science.
    International Journal of Psychology 04/2014; 50(2). DOI:10.1002/ijop.12070 · 1.23 Impact Factor
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