Lead Review Article

Gerald J. and Dorothy R. Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy, Tufts University, Boston, Massachusetts 02111, USA.
Nutrition Reviews (Impact Factor: 6.08). 04/2005; 63(3):71-80. DOI: 10.1301/nr.2005.mar.000-000
Source: PubMed


There is an urgent need to identify nutrition-related risk factors for obesity and the metabolic syndrome, because the prevalence of these conditions continues to rise among children and adolescents. While some studies suggest that dairy and calcium intake may attenuate obesity and the metabolic syndrome, others do not support these findings. In addition, very little research has been done in children and adolescents, especially in minority youth, who are at the greatest risk for obesity and metabolic dysfunctions. Longitudinal studies examining the role of dairy intake in relation to changes in body composition and metabolic profiles during growth are also critically needed. Of the studies conducted thus far, part of the discrepancy in findings may be due to the uncertainty over whether the effect of dairy intake is independent of energy intake or other eating pattern variables. Further, there is no consensus on how to qualify (i.e., which foods) or quantify (i.e., which cutoffs and/or units) dairy consumption. The widespread problem of implausible dietary reporting in observational studies and the lack of compliance monitoring in intervention trials may also contribute to inconsistent findings. Given the lack of consensus on the effect of dairy, particularly in children and adolescents, more research is warranted before any recommendations can be made on dietary guidelines, policies, and interventions.

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Available from: Terry Huang, Oct 08, 2015
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    • "A recent review on dairy intake and obesity in children and adolescents has addressed several reasons for inconsistent findings across observational studies, i.e. the problem of implausible dietary self-reporting, the uncertainty over whether the effect of dairy intake is independent of energy intake or other eating pattern variables, and, the lack of consensus on how to qualify or quantify dairy consumption [36]. We found a positive relationship and significant linear trend between the risk of being overweight and dairy consumption using a model that took into consideration the intake of the other food groups. "
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the association between the risk of overweight and the consumption of food groups in children and adolescents. We studied 1764 healthy children and adolescents (age 6-19y) attending 16 Seventh-Day Adventist schools and 13 public schools using a 106-item non-quantitative food frequency questionnaire from the late 1980 Child-Adolescent Blood Pressure Study. Logistic regression models were used to compute the risk of overweight according to consumption of grains, nuts, vegetables, fruits, meats/fish/eggs, dairy, and, low nutrient-dense foods (LNDF). The frequency of consumption of grains, nuts, vegetables and LNDF were inversely related to the risk of being overweight and dairy increased the risk. Specifically, the odds ratio (95% CI) for children in the highest quartile or tertile of consumption compared with the lowest quartile or tertile were as follows: grains 0.59(0.41-0.83); nuts 0.60(0.43-0.85); vegetables 0.67(0.48-0.94); LNDF 0.43(0.29-0.63); and, dairy 1.36(0.97, 1.92). The regular intake of specific plant foods may prevent overweight among children and adolescents.
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    ABSTRACT: To understand the possible role of chronic dietary high vitamin A supplementation in body weight regulation and obesity using a novel WNIN/Ob obese rat model developed at the National Centre for Laboratory Animal Sciences of National Institute of Nutrition, India. Thirty-six 7-month-old male rats of lean, carrier, and obese phenotypes were broadly divided into two groups; each group was subdivided into three subgroups consisting of six lean, six carrier, and six obese rats and received diets containing either 2.6 or 129 mg vitamin A/kg of diet for 2 months. Body weight gain, food intake, and weights of various organs were recorded. Adiposity index and BMI were calculated. Serum and liver retinol and brown adipose tissue (BAT)-uncoupling protein1 (UCP1) mRNA expression levels were quantified. Chronic feeding of high but non-toxic doses of vitamin A through diet significantly reduced (P < or = 0.05) body weight gain, adiposity index, and retroperitoneal white adipose tissue mass (without affecting food intake) in obese rats compared with their lean and carrier counterparts. In general, vitamin A treatment significantly improved hepatic retinol stores (P < or = 0.05) in all phenotypes without affecting serum free retinol levels. However, augmented BAT-UCP1 expression was observed only in carrier and obese rats (whose basal expression was low). Our data suggest that chronic dietary vitamin A supplementation at high doses effectively regulates obesity in obese phenotype of the WNIN/Ob strain, possibly through up-regulation of the BAT-UCP1 gene and associated adipose tissue loss. However, in vitamin A-supplemented lean and carrier rats, changes in adiposity could not be related to BAT-UCP1 expression levels.
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