Article

Dairy intake, obesity, and metabolic health in children and adolescents: knowledge and gaps.

Gerald J. and Dorothy R. Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy, Tufts University, Boston, Massachusetts 02111, USA.
Nutrition Reviews (Impact Factor: 5.54). 04/2005; 63(3):71-80. DOI: 10.1301/nr.2005.mar.000-000
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT There is an urgent need to identify nutrition-related risk factors for obesity and the metabolic syndrome, because the prevalence of these conditions continues to rise among children and adolescents. While some studies suggest that dairy and calcium intake may attenuate obesity and the metabolic syndrome, others do not support these findings. In addition, very little research has been done in children and adolescents, especially in minority youth, who are at the greatest risk for obesity and metabolic dysfunctions. Longitudinal studies examining the role of dairy intake in relation to changes in body composition and metabolic profiles during growth are also critically needed. Of the studies conducted thus far, part of the discrepancy in findings may be due to the uncertainty over whether the effect of dairy intake is independent of energy intake or other eating pattern variables. Further, there is no consensus on how to qualify (i.e., which foods) or quantify (i.e., which cutoffs and/or units) dairy consumption. The widespread problem of implausible dietary reporting in observational studies and the lack of compliance monitoring in intervention trials may also contribute to inconsistent findings. Given the lack of consensus on the effect of dairy, particularly in children and adolescents, more research is warranted before any recommendations can be made on dietary guidelines, policies, and interventions.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Terry Huang, Jun 27, 2015
3 Followers
 · 
128 Views
  • Source
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To understand the possible role of chronic dietary high vitamin A supplementation in body weight regulation and obesity using a novel WNIN/Ob obese rat model developed at the National Centre for Laboratory Animal Sciences of National Institute of Nutrition, India. Thirty-six 7-month-old male rats of lean, carrier, and obese phenotypes were broadly divided into two groups; each group was subdivided into three subgroups consisting of six lean, six carrier, and six obese rats and received diets containing either 2.6 or 129 mg vitamin A/kg of diet for 2 months. Body weight gain, food intake, and weights of various organs were recorded. Adiposity index and BMI were calculated. Serum and liver retinol and brown adipose tissue (BAT)-uncoupling protein1 (UCP1) mRNA expression levels were quantified. Chronic feeding of high but non-toxic doses of vitamin A through diet significantly reduced (P < or = 0.05) body weight gain, adiposity index, and retroperitoneal white adipose tissue mass (without affecting food intake) in obese rats compared with their lean and carrier counterparts. In general, vitamin A treatment significantly improved hepatic retinol stores (P < or = 0.05) in all phenotypes without affecting serum free retinol levels. However, augmented BAT-UCP1 expression was observed only in carrier and obese rats (whose basal expression was low). Our data suggest that chronic dietary vitamin A supplementation at high doses effectively regulates obesity in obese phenotype of the WNIN/Ob strain, possibly through up-regulation of the BAT-UCP1 gene and associated adipose tissue loss. However, in vitamin A-supplemented lean and carrier rats, changes in adiposity could not be related to BAT-UCP1 expression levels.
    Obesity 02/2006; 14(1):52-9. DOI:10.1038/oby.2006.7 · 4.39 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To estimate the effect of dairy intake in early childhood on the acquisition of body fat throughout childhood. Ninety-nine of the original 106 families enrolled in the Framingham Children's Study with a child age to 6 years at baseline were followed into adolescence through yearly clinic visits and periodic data collection throughout each year. Dairy intake for these analyses was derived from a mean of 15 days of diet records per subject collected before age 6. A trained examiner took two measurements each year of height, weight, and triceps, subscapular, suprailiac, and abdominal skinfolds using a standardized protocol. Yearly change in body fat was estimated as the slope of these anthropometry measures from ages 5 to 13 years. Early adolescent body fat was estimated as the mean of all available measurements from 10 to 13 years of age. Children in the lowest sex-specific tertile of dairy intake during preschool (i.e., <1.25 servings per day for girls and <1.70 servings per day for boys) had significantly greater gains in body fat during childhood. These children with low dairy intakes gained more than 3 additional mm of subcutaneous fat per year in the sum of four skinfold measures. By the time of early adolescence, those in the lowest tertile of dairy intake had a BMI that was approximately two units higher and an extra 25 mm of subcutaneous fat. Suboptimal dairy intakes during preschool in this cohort were associated with greater gains in body fat throughout childhood.
    Obesity 06/2006; 14(6):1010-8. DOI:10.1038/oby.2006.116 · 4.39 Impact Factor