Adhesive thickness effects on the bond strength of a light-cured resin-modified glass ionomer cement.
ABSTRACT These in vitro studies investigated the effect of adhesive thickness on the tensile and shear bond strength of a light-cured, resin-modified glass-ionomer cement (FO). A light-cured conventional composite resin (CO) was used as the control material. Mesh-based metal brackets were bonded to extracted human premolars using FO and CO. The adhesive thickness was controlled by a special device and 0, 0.25, and 0.5 mm thicknesses were tested for both bonding agents. All bonded specimens were stored in distilled water at 37 degrees C for 48 hours and thermocycled between 5 degrees C and 55 degrees C for 200 cycles before testing. Analysis of variance showed that bond strength was significantly affected by the adhesive thickness (P < .001) and type of adhesive (P = .001). There were statistically significant differences between the mean bond strengths of the groups at the P < .05 level of significance. For all adhesive thicknesses, CO had higher bond strength values than those of FO in both test modes. The bond strength values were also analyzed using a Weibull analysis, which showed the most favorable adhesive thickness, and the 5% and 90% probabilities of failures was 0.25 mm in the FO groups. Bracket-adhesive interface failure was predominant for all groups in tensile testing, but enamel-adhesive interface failures increased with increased adhesive thickness in shear testing for the FO. This study suggests that adhesive thickness under a bracket could be particularly important when using a FO in direct bonding.
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ABSTRACT: The objective of this research was to fabricate a composite with an optimum filler level in a bisphenol-A-glycidyldimethacrylate (Bis-GMA) triethylene glycidal dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) resin for bonding of metallic orthodontic brackets to achieve the best handling characteristics with optimum bond strength and without compromising the mechanical properties of the adhesive. One-hundred and sixty extracted human premolars free of any detectable pathology or buccal surface alterations were collected and divided into four groups. In group 1 (control), the teeth were bonded with stainless steel brackets using Transbond XT. In groups 2, 3, and 4, the teeth were bonded with metal brackets using a Bis-GMA/TEGDMA resin with 80, 60, and 20 per cent by weight silane-coated silica of a spherical shape with a mean size of 0.01 μm. Shear bond strength (SBS) of the composites was determined and the adhesive remnant index (ARI) and enamel fracture post-debonding were assessed. According to one-way analysis of variance and Tukey's honestly significant difference (HSD) multiple comparison tests, the SBS of group 4 (10.54 MPa) was considerably less than that of groups 1 (26.1 MPa), 2 (25.5 MPa), and 3 (24.6 MPa). Chi-square analysis revealed that there was an insignificant difference in the incidence of enamel fracture between groups 1 and 2, while a significant difference was present between groups 1 and 2 and 3 and 4. An insignificant difference was also observed in the location of the adhesive failure between the four groups. While all the bonding adhesives tested can be safely used for bonding of brackets, 60 per cent filled Bis-GMA/TEGDMA was superior clinically due to its ease of handling and superior bond strength.The European Journal of Orthodontics 02/2011; 34(1):62-6. DOI:10.1093/ejo/cjq159 · 1.39 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of applying a sustained seating force during bonding on the adhesive layer and on shear bond strength (SBS) of orthodontic brackets. Forty human premolars divided into two groups were included in the study. Stainless steel brackets were bonded to the premolars with Transbond XT light cure adhesive and Transbond Plus Self Etch Primer (SEP). The brackets in both groups were subjected to an initial seating force of 300 g for 3 seconds, sufficient to position the bracket. The seating force was maintained throughout the 40 seconds of light curing in group 2. SBS was tested 24 hours after bracket bonding with a shear blade using an Instron testing unit at a crosshead speed of 2 mm/minute. A Student's t-test was used to compare the bond strength of the two groups and a chi-square test to compare the frequencies of the adhesive remnant index (ARI) scores. The mean SBS was significantly different between the two groups (P=0.025). The bond strength was higher (mean 8.15±0.89 MPa) in group 2 compared with group 1 (mean 7.39±1.14 MPa). There was no significant difference (P=0.440) in the ARI scores between the two groups. Applying a sustained seating force during orthodontic bracket bonding improves bond strength but does not change the distribution of the ARI scores.The European Journal of Orthodontics 10/2010; 33(4):402-6. DOI:10.1093/ejo/cjq096 · 1.39 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to undertake a qualitative and quantitative evaluation of changes on enamel surfaces after debonding of brackets followed by finishing procedures, using a high-resolution three-dimensional optical profiler and to investigate the accuracy of the technique. The labial surfaces of 36 extracted upper central incisors were examined. Before bonding, the enamel surfaces were subjected to profilometry, recording four amplitude parameters. Brackets were then bonded using two types of light-cured orthodontic adhesive: composite resin and resin-modified glass ionomer cement. Finishing was performed by three different methods: pumice on a rubber cup, fine and ultrafine aluminum oxide discs, and microfine diamond cups followed by silicon carbide brushes. The samples were subsequently re-analyzed by profilometry. Wilcoxon signed-rank test, Kruskal-Wallis test (p < 0.05) and a posteriori Mann-Whitney U test with Bonferroni correction (p < 0.0167) revealed a significant reduction of enamel roughness when diamond cups followed by silicon carbide brushes were used to finish surfaces that had remnants of resin-modified glass ionomer adhesive and when pumice was used to finish surfaces that had traces of composite resin. Enamel loss was minimal. The 3D optical profilometry technique was able to provide accurate qualitative and quantitative assessment of changes on the enamel surface after debonding. Morphological changes in the topography of dental surfaces, especially if related to enamel loss and roughness, are of considerable clinical importance. The quantitative evaluation method used herein enables a more comprehensive understanding of the effects of orthodontic bonding on teeth.Clinical Oral Investigations 12/2013; DOI:10.1007/s00784-013-1159-0 · 2.29 Impact Factor