Article

Cytotoxic effects of 100 reference compounds on Hep G2 and HeLa cells and of 60 compounds on ECC-1 and CHO cells. I mechanistic assays on ROS, glutathione depletion and calcein uptake.

Department of Pharmacology, N.V. Organon, Molenstraat 110, 5340 BH Oss, The Netherlands.
Toxicology in Vitro (Impact Factor: 3.21). 07/2005; 19(4):505-16. DOI: 10.1016/j.tiv.2005.01.003
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT In this study fluorometric assays have been used for medium throughput screening on toxicity. Dichlorofluorescein diacetate, monochlorobimane and calcein-AM were fluorophores for the measurement of the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), the quantification of glutathione and the membrane stability, respectively. These assays have been carried out in the presence or absence of toxic compounds and with four different cell lines, i.e. human liver (Hep G2), human endometrium (ECC-1), human cervix (HeLa) and Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO). In these assays the toxic dose of 60 reference compounds was assessed for Hep G2, HeLa, ECC-1 and CHO cells and of 40 pharmaceutical compounds for Hep G2 (ROS, glutathione) or HeLa (calcein) cells, only. These compounds were narcotic analgesics, hypnotics, vasodilators, specific cellular energy blockers, cellular proliferation inhibitors, ion channel blockers, estrogens, antiestrogens, androgens, progestagens and others. The outcome of this study revealed that all four cell lines were responsive to the same set of drugs. Only for some drugs Hep G2 cells appear slightly more sensitive, as compared to the other three cell lines. In general the HeLa cell line was the most sensitive cell line for the calcein uptake, while the Hep G2 cell line shows slightly more sensitivity for dichorofluorescein and monochlorobimane assays than the other three cell lines. Further evaluation at higher toxic dosages with Hep G2 cells for ROS and glutathione depletion and HeLa cells for calcein uptake, demonstrated toxic effects for 56 of the 100 reference compounds in these assays, among which there were estrogens, androgens, progestagens and antiestrogens. In conclusion, almost all tested compounds gave similar dose and toxicity effects on the permanent cell lines used in this study. Only three compounds showed more tissue specific cell responses. This shows that in principle all four cell lines can be used for toxicity screening.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
164 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Rare earth (RE) elements have been proposed to improve the corrosion resistance of degradable Mg alloys for medical applications. However, good biocompatibility of the elements released by Mg alloys during degradation is essential for their use in implants. Most studies are focused on material science and engineering aspects, but the effects of ions released at the biological interface are not frequently addressed. The aim of this study was to contribute to the knowledge of in vitro toxicological effects of two RE Mg-alloying elements, La and Gd, as individual ions and in mixtures with and without Mg ions. Different combinations (Mg+Gd, Mg+La, and Mg+Gd+La) were used to evaluate their possible synergistic effects on CHO-K1 cells. Two sets of experiments were designed to assess (1) the cyto-genotoxic effect of La and Gd ions by neutral red (NR) technique, Reduction of tetrazolium salt (MTT), Viability with Acridine Orange staining, Clonogenic test, and Comet assay; and, (2) the possible synergistic toxicological effect of La and Gd ions in mixtures, and the influence of osmolarity increase on cellular response. Cytotoxic effects of RE were found at concentrations ≥200μM RE while DNA damage was detected for doses ≥1500μM and ≥1600μM for La and Gd, respectively. When mixtures of ions were evaluated, neither synergistic cytotoxic effects nor biological damage related to osmolarity increase were detected.
    Colloids and surfaces B: Biointerfaces 03/2014; 117C:312-321. · 4.28 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: As a consequence of the increased use of silver nanoparticles in food, food contact materials, dietary supplements and cosmetics to prevent fungal and bacterial growth, there is a need for validated rapid screening methods to assess the safety of nanoparticle exposure. This study evaluated two widely used in vitro cell culture models, human liver HepG2 cells and human colon Caco2 cells, as tools for assessing the potential genotoxicity of 20-nm nanosilver. The average silver nanoparticle size as determined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was 20.4 nm. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) analysis showed no large agglomeration of the silver nanoparticles. The silver concentration in a 20-nm nanosilver solution determined by the inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis was 0.962 mg ml(-1) . Analysis by ICP-MS and TEM demonstrated the uptake of 20-nm silver by both HepG2 and Caco2 cells. Genotoxicity was determined by the cytochalasin B-blocked micronucleus assay with acridine orange staining and fluorescence microscopy. Concentration- and time-dependent increases in the frequency of binucleated cells with micronuclei induced by the nanosilver was observed in the concentration range of 0.5 to 15 µg ml(-1) in both HepG2 and Caco2 cells compared with the control. Our results indicated that HepG2 cells were more sensitive than Caco2 cells in terms of micronuclei formation induced by nanosilver exposure. In summary, the results of this study indicate that the widely used in vitro models, HepG2 and Caco2 cells in culture, represent potential screening models for prediction of genotoxicity of silver nanoparticles by in vitro micronucleus assay. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
    Journal of Applied Toxicology 06/2014; · 3.17 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Drug induced liver injury (DILI) is a major challenge in clinical medicine and drug development. New models are needed for predicting which potential therapeutic compounds will cause DILI in humans, and new markers and mediators of DILI still need to be identified. This review will highlight the strengths and weaknesses of using zebrafish as a high throughput in vivo model for studying DILI. Although the zebrafish liver architecture is different to the mammalian liver, the main physiological processes remain similar. Zebrafish metabolize drugs using similar pathways as humans; they possess a wide range of cytochrome P450 enzymes enabling metabolic reactions including hydroxylation, conjugation, oxidation, demethylation and de-ethylation. Following exposure to a range of liver toxic drugs, the zebrafish liver develops histological patterns of injury comparable to mammals and liver injury biomarkers can be quantified in the zebrafish circulation. The zebrafish immune system is similar to mammals, but the zebrafish inflammatory response to DILI is not yet defined. To quantify DILI in zebrafish a wide variety of methods can be used including: visual assessment, quantification of serum enzymes and experimental serum biomarkers and scoring histopathology. With further development, the zebrafish may be a model that complements rodents and may have value for the discovery of new disease pathways and translational biomarkers.
    British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 04/2014; · 3.69 Impact Factor

Full-text

Download
69 Downloads
Available from
May 17, 2014

Similar Publications