The ubiquitin ligase Drosophila Mind bomb promotes Notch signaling by regulating the localization and activity of Serrate and Delta
ABSTRACT The receptor Notch and its ligands of the Delta/Serrate/LAG2 (DSL) family are the central components in the Notch pathway, a fundamental cell signaling system that regulates pattern formation during animal development. Delta is directly ubiquitinated by Drosophila and Xenopus Neuralized, and by zebrafish Mind bomb, two unrelated RING-type E3 ubiquitin ligases with common abilities to promote Delta endocytosis and signaling activity. Although orthologs of both Neuralized and Mind bomb are found in most metazoan organisms, their relative contributions to Notch signaling in any single organism have not yet been assessed. We show here that a Drosophila ortholog of Mind bomb (D-mib) is a positive component of Notch signaling that is required for multiple Neuralized-independent, Notch-dependent developmental processes. Furthermore, we show that D-mib associates physically and functionally with both Serrate and Delta. We find that D-mib uses its ubiquitin ligase activity to promote DSL ligand activity, an activity that is correlated with its ability to induce the endocytosis and degradation of both Delta and Serrate (see also Le Borgne et al., 2005). We further demonstrate that D-mib can functionally replace Neuralized in multiple cell fate decisions that absolutely require endogenous Neuralized, a testament to the highly similar activities of these two unrelated ubiquitin ligases in regulating Notch signaling. We conclude that ubiquitination of Delta and Serrate by Neuralized and D-mib is an obligate feature of DSL ligand activation throughout Drosophila development.
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ABSTRACT: Autophagy plays important roles in adipogenesis and neuron development. However, how autophagy contributes to cardiac development is not well understood. The main aim of our study was to determine the association between autophagy and myocardial differentiation and its roles in this process. Using a well-established an in vitro cardiomyocyte differentiation system, P19CL6 cells, we found that autophagy occurred from the early stage of cardiac differentiation. Blocking autophagy by knocking-down of autophagy-related gene Atg7 or Atg5 inhibited the cardiac differentiation of P19CL6 cells. Further investigation demonstrated that LC3 and P62 could form a complex with β-catenin and NICD, respectively, and promoted the degradation of β-catenin and NICD. Enhancing autophagy promoted the formation of complex, whereas blocking autophagy attenuated the degradation of β-catenin and NICD. Taken together, autophagy could facilitate P19CL6 cells to complete the cardiac differentiation process through blocking Wnt and Notch signaling pathways.Cellular Signalling 11/2014; 26(11). DOI:10.1016/j.cellsig.2014.07.028 · 4.47 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The bristle sensillum of the imago of Drosophila is made of four cells that arise from a sensory organ precursor cell (SOP). This SOP is selected within proneural clusters (PNC) through a mechanism that involves Notch signalling. PNCs are defined through the expression domains of the proneural genes, whose activities enables cells to become SOPs. They encode tissue specific bHLH proteins that form functional heterodimers with the bHLH protein Daughterless (Da). In the prevailing lateral inhibition model for SOP selection, a transcriptional feedback loop that involves the Notch pathway amplifies small differences of proneural activity between cells of the PNC. As a result only one or two cells accumulate sufficient proneural activity to adopt the SOP fate. Most of the experiments that sustained the prevailing lateral inhibition model were performed a decade ago. We here re-examined the selection process using recently available reagents. Our data suggest a different picture of SOP selection. They indicate that a band-like region of proneural activity exists. In this proneural band the activity of the Notch pathway is required in combination with Emc to define the PNCs. We found a sub-group in the PNCs from which a pre-selected SOP arises. Our data indicate that most imaginal disc cells are able to adopt a proneural state from which they can progress to become SOPs. They further show that bristle formation can occur in the absence of the proneural genes if the function of emc is abolished. These results suggest that the tissue specific proneural proteins of Drosophila have a similar function as in the vertebrates, which is to determine the time of emergence and position of the SOP and to stabilise the proneural state.PLoS Genetics 01/2015; 11(1):e1004911. DOI:10.1371/journal.pgen.1004911 · 8.17 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The four nucleotides (bases), A, T (U), G and C in small genomes, virus DNA/RNA, organelle and plas-tid genomes were also arranged sophisticatedly in the structural features in a single-strand with 1) reverse-complement symmetry of base or base sequences, 2) bias of four bases, 3) multiple fractality of the distri-bution of each four bases depending on the distance in double logarithmic plot (power spectrum) of L (the distance of a base to the next base) vs. P (L) (the probability of the base-distribution at L), although their genomes were composed of low numbers of the four bases, and the base-symmetry was rather lower than the prokaryotic-and the eukaryotic cells. In the case of the genomic DNA composed of less than 10,000 nt, it was better than to be partitioned at 10 of the L-value, and the structural features for the bio-logically active genomic DNA were observed as the large genomes. As the results, the base sequences of the genomic DNA including the genomic-RNA might be universal in all genomes. In addition, the rela-tionship between the structural features of the ge-nome and the biological complexity was discussed.Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering 01/2011; 04(11). DOI:10.4236/jbise.2011.411089