Epidemiology of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

Epidemiology and Cancer Registration Unit, IDIBELL, Institut Català d'Oncologia, Avda. Gran Via s/n, Km 2.7, 08907 L'Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain.
Clinics in Liver Disease (Impact Factor: 3.66). 06/2005; 9(2):191-211, v. DOI: 10.1016/j.cld.2004.12.009
Source: PubMed


Year 2000 estimates of the incidence of cancer indicate that primary liver cancer remains the fifth most common malignancy in men and the eighth in women. The number of new cases has been predicted as 564,000, corresponding to 398,000 in men and 166,000 in women. The geographic areas at highest risk are located in Eastern Asia, Middle Africa, and some countries of Western Africa. Changes in incidence among migrant populations underline the predominant role of environmental factors in the etiology of primary liver cancer. In high-risk countries, the early cases of primary liver cancer occur already at ages 20 and above, underlying the impact of viral exposures early in life. In countries at low risk, primary liver cancer is rare before the 50s, translating the impact of late exposures with moderate risks and long latency intervals. Sex ratios are typically between 2 and 4. The incidence of primary liver cancer is increasing in several developed countries including the United States, and the increase will likely continue for several decades. The trend has a dominant cohort effect related to exposures to hepatitis B and C viruses. The variability of primary liver cancer incidence is largely explained by the distribution and the natural history of the hepatitis B and C viruses. The attributable risk estimates for the combined effects of these infections account for well over 80% of liver cancer cases worldwide. Primary liver cancer is the first human cancer largely amenable to prevention using hepatitis B virus vaccines and screening of blood and blood products for hepatitis B and C viruses.

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    • "Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary liver cancer, the sixth most common cancer, and the third most common cause of cancer-related deaths in the world [1] [2]. This cancer generally develops secondarily to an underlying chronic liver disease, due to different aetiologies (B or C viral hepatitis, alcohol abuse, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, genetic iron overload ) [3]. "
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND & AIMS: Transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) is the standard of care for intermediate stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and it is the most commonly used treatment for HCC worldwide. However, no prognostic indices, designed to select appropriate candidates for repeat conventional TACE, have been incorporated in the guidelines. METHODS: From January 2007 to April 2012, 139 consecutive HCC patients, mainly with an alcohol- or viral-induced disease, were treated with TACE. Using a regression model on the prognostic variables of our population, we determined a score designed to help for repeat TACE and we validated it in two cohorts. We also compared it to the ART score. RESULTS: In the multivariate analysis, four prognostic factors were associated with overall survival: BCLC and AFP (>200ng/ml) at baseline, increase in Child-Pugh score by ⩾2 from baseline, and absence of radiological response. These factors were included in a score (ABCR, ranging from -3 to +6), which correlates with survival and identifies three groups. The ABCR score was validated in two different cohorts of 178 patients and proofed to perform better than the ART score in distinguishing between patients' prognosis. CONCLUSIONS: The ABCR score is a simple and clinically relevant index, summing four prognostic variables endorsed in HCC. An ABCR score ⩾4 prior to the second TACE identifies patients with dismal prognosis who may not benefit from further TACE sessions. Copyright © 2014 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Hepatology 02/2015; 379. DOI:10.1016/j.jhep.2015.02.001 · 11.34 Impact Factor
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    • "HCC is most prevalent in the developing world; 82% of diagnosed HCC and HCC-related deaths occur in countries located in Southeast Asia and sub-Saharan Africa [3]. Despite its relatively lower prevalence, countries such as the USA and Japan are now also falling victim to the HCC burden [4]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Individuals with liver disease, and especially those with Hepatitis B or C, are at an increased risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) which is the third most common cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Inadequate screening tests largely account for presentation of advanced tumours and high mortality rates. Early detection of HCC amongst high-risk groups is paramount in improving prognosis. This research aimed to further characterise the previously described humoral immune response raised to tumour-associated antigens (TAAs) in the serum of patients with HCC. Methods Serum from 96 patients with confirmed HCC, 96 healthy controls matched for age and sex, 78 patients with confirmed liver cirrhosis and 91 patients with confirmed chronic liver disease were analysed for the presence of IgG autoantibodies raised to 41 recombinant TAAs/antigen fragments by ELISA. Results Varying autoantibody specificities (97–100%) and sensitivities (0–10%) were observed to individual TAAs. A 21-antigen panel achieved a specificity of 92% and sensitivity of 45% for the detection of HCC. This same panel identified 21% of 169 high-risk controls as having elevated autoantibody levels. A reproducible panel of 10 antigens achieved a specificity of 91% and sensitivity of 41% in HCC. 15% of 152 high-risk controls gave positive results with this panel. Conclusions This minimally invasive blood test has the potential to offer advantages over currently available tools for the identification of HCC amongst pre-disposed patients. Results are comparable to current gold standards in HCC (Ultrasonography) and to similar tests in other cancers (EarlyCDT-Lung).
    PLoS ONE 08/2014; 9(8):e103867. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0103867 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • "It has been reported that liver cancer is the fifth most common malignant tumor worldwide and the fourth most common malignant cancer nationwide [1], and according to domestic statistics of South Korea, five-year survival rates from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was 15.3% [2], a relatively low survival rate compared to its high incidence. Liver cirrhosis is the factor with the most decisive influence on the incidence of HCC, and about 90% of patients with HCC have chronic infections of hepatitis B or C virus, known as the basal diseases of cirrhosis [3]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose The aim of this study was to compare the therapeutic effects of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and hepatic resection (HR) with regards to procedural morbidity, mortality, overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) rates in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. Methods Retrospective studies were performed based on the medical records of 129 patients who underwent curative HR, and 57 who patients received RFA for HCC, between 2005 and 2009. The inclusion criteria of HCC were the presence of three or fewer nodules 3 cm or less in diameter or a single nodule of 5 cm or less. Results The 1-, 3- and 5-year OS rates in the HR group were 91.3%, 78.8%, and 64.9%, compared to 94.4%, 74.0%, and 74.0% in the RFA group, with no significant difference between the two groups (P = 0.725). The estimated 1- and 3-year DFS rates were 70.0% and 53.0% in the HR group and 65.2% and 24.7% in the RFA group, respectively. The DFS rates of HR group were significantly higher than RFA group (P = 0.015). Multivariate analysis identified that recurrence (P = 0.036) and portal hypertension (P = 0.036) were associated with OS and that portal hypertension (P = 0.048) and increased serum α-FP (P = 0.008) were the factors significantly associated with DFS. Conclusion HCC within Milan criteria should consider hepatectomy as the primary treatment if the patient's liver function and general conditions are good enough to undergo surgical operation. But in that RFA revealed similar overall survival to HR, RFA can be an alternative therapy for patients who are eligible for surgical resection.
    Annals of Surgical Treatment and Research 08/2014; 87(2):72-80. DOI:10.4174/astr.2014.87.2.72
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