Article

A functional CD8+ cell assay reveals individual variation in CD8+ cell antiviral efficacy and explains differences in human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 proviral load.

Department of Immunology, Imperial College, London, UK.
Journal of General Virology (Impact Factor: 3.13). 06/2005; 86(Pt 5):1515-23. DOI: 10.1099/vir.0.80766-0
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The CD8+ lymphocyte response is a main component of host immunity, yet it is difficult to quantify its contribution to the control of persistent viruses. Consequently, it remains controversial as to whether CD8+ cells have a biologically significant impact on viral burden and disease progression in infections such as human immunodeficiency virus-1 and human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I). Experiments to ascertain the impact of CD8+ cells on viral burden based on CD8+ cell frequency or specificity alone give inconsistent results. Here, an alternative approach was developed that directly quantifies the impact of CD8+ lymphocytes on HTLV-I proviral burden by measuring the rate at which HTLV-I-infected CD4+ cells were cleared by autologous CD8+ cells ex vivo. It was demonstrated that CD8+ cells reduced the lifespan of infected CD4+ cells to 1 day, considerably shorter than the 30 day lifespan of uninfected cells in vivo. Furthermore, it was shown that HTLV-I-infected individuals vary considerably in the rate at which their CD8+ cells clear infected cells, and that this was a significant predictor of their HTLV-I proviral load. Forty to 50 % of between-individual variation in HTLV-I proviral load was explained by variation in the rate at which CD8+ cells cleared infected cells. This novel approach demonstrates that CD8+ cells are a major determinant of HTLV-I proviral load. This assay is applicable to quantifying the CD8+ cell response to other viruses and malignancies and may be of particular importance in assessing vaccines.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
74 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) proviral DNA load in patients with HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) and asymptomatic HTLV-1 carriers, a SYBR Green-based real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay was developed. HTLV-1 proviral DNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was quantified using primers targeting the pX region and the HTLV-1 copy number normalized to the amount of ERV-3 (Endogenous Retrovirus 3) cellular DNA. Thirty-three asymptomatic HTLV-1 carriers (ACs) and 39 patients with HAM/TSP were enrolled. Some participants were relatives of HAM/TSP cases (16 ACs and 7 patients with HAM/TSP). On multiple linear regression analysis, the authors found a significant association between clinical status and HTLV-1 proviral load (P < .01), but only among women. ACs showed a median proviral load of 561 copies per 104 PBMCs (interquartile range: 251-1623). In HAM/TSP patients, the median proviral load was 1783 (1385-2914). ACs related to HAM/TSP patients presented a relatively high proviral load (median 1152); however, the association between relatedness to a HAM/TSP patient and proviral load was not significant (P = .1). In HAM/TSP patients, no association was found between proviral load and disease duration, progression or severity. The fact that the effect of HAM/TSP upon the HTLV-1 proviral load differed between sexes and the finding of a high proviral load among asymptomatic relatives of HAM/TSP patients suggest that not yet identified genetic or environmental factors influence the pathogenesis of HTLV-1 infection.
    Journal of NeuroVirology 01/2007; 12(6):456-65. · 2.85 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: HTLV-1 causes proliferation of clonal populations of infected T cells in vivo, each clone defined by a unique proviral integration site in the host genome. The proviral load is strongly correlated with odds of the inflammatory disease HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). There is evidence that asymptomatic HTLV-1 carriers (ACs) have a more effective CD8 + T cell response, including a higher frequency of HLA class I alleles able to present peptides from a regulatory protein of HTLV-1, HBZ. We have previously shown that specific features of the host genome flanking the proviral integration site favour clone survival and spontaneous expression of the viral transactivator protein Tax in naturally infected PBMCs ex vivo. However, the previous studies were not designed or powered to detect differences in integration site characteristics between ACs and HAM/TSP patients. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the genomic environment of the provirus differs systematically between ACs and HAM/TSP patients, and between individuals with strong or weak HBZ presentation.
    Virology journal. 09/2014; 11(1):172.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Deltaretroviruses such as human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and bovine leukemia virus (BLV) induce a persistent infection that remains generally asymptomatic but can also lead to leukemia or lymphoma. These viruses replicate by infecting new lymphocytes (i.e. the infectious cycle) or via clonal expansion of the infected cells (mitotic cycle). The relative importance of these two cycles in viral replication varies during infection. The majority of infected clones are created early before the onset of an efficient immune response. Later on, the main replication route is mitotic expansion of pre-existing infected clones. Due to the paucity of available samples and for ethical reasons, only scarce data is available on early infection by HTLV-1. Therefore, we addressed this question in a comparative BLV model. We used high-throughput sequencing to map and quantify the insertion sites of the provirus in order to monitor the clonality of the BLV-infected cells population (i.e. the number of distinct clones and abundance of each clone). We found that BLV propagation shifts from cell neoinfection to clonal proliferation in about 2 months from inoculation. Initially, BLV proviral integration significantly favors transcribed regions of the genome. Negative selection then eliminates 97% of the clones detected at seroconversion and disfavors BLV-infected cells carrying a provirus located close to a promoter or a gene. Nevertheless, among the surviving proviruses, clone abundance positively correlates with proximity of the provirus to a transcribed region. Two opposite forces thus operate during primary infection and dictate the fate of long term clonal composition: (1) initial integration inside genes or promoters and (2) host negative selection disfavoring proviruses located next to transcribed regions. The result of this initial response will contribute to the proviral load set point value as clonal abundance will benefit from carrying a provirus in transcribed regions.
    PLoS Pathogens 10/2013; 9(10):e1003687. · 8.14 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

View
8 Downloads
Available from
May 26, 2014