Obesity-related cardiovascular risk factors: intervention recommendations to decrease adolescent obesity.
ABSTRACT The incidence of adolescent obesity is increasing dramatically in the United States with associated risks of hypertension, adverse lipid profiles, and Type II diabetes. Unless reversed, this trend predicts an epidemic of adult cardiovascular disease. Interventions at home, at school, and in the community are required to empower teens to increase physical activity and to modify eating habits. This article describes assessment for obesity-related health problems as well as scientific guidelines and research-based intervention strategies to decrease obesity in adolescents.
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ABSTRACT: To examine the prevalence of childhood and adolescent obesity in Taiwan and investigate the association between excess weight and physical fitness and blood pressure. Cross-sectional study. A total of 13 935 children and adolescents aged 6-18 years (boys: 7031, girls: 6904) were involved in the 1999 survey and 24 586 (boys: 12 367, girls: 12 219) were available in the 2001 survey. Weight, height, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, and health-related fitness tests (bent-leg curl-ups, sit-and-reach test and step test) were measured. The overall prevalence of obesity (including overweight) in boys was 19.8% in 1999 and 26.8% in 2001. It was lower in girls with 15.2% in 1999 and 16.5% in 2001. The normal weight group performed better (P<0.05) than the overweight/obese group in all fitness tests except in the 2001 sit-and-reach test where there were no differences between the two groups. The risk of hypertension increased nearly two times for the overweight/obese-fit group and nearly three times for the overweight/obese-unfit group compared to the normal weight-fit group (adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=1.93, 95%CI=1.514-2.451 and AOR=2.93, 95%CI=2.493-3.454, respectively). Overall, the findings demonstrated that there is an increasing trend in overweight/obesity prevalence for Taiwanese youth even in a 2-year period. The overweight/obese youngsters tend to have poorer muscular strength and cardiovascular endurance than the normal weight group. The overweight/obese and unfit group had a greater risk of hypertension than other groups. However, this risk was significantly lower if obese/overweight children had a higher than average level of cardiovascular fitness.European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 12/2006; 60(12):1367-75. DOI:10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602466 · 2.95 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Although blood pressure (BP) is a frequently used variable in nursing studies, measurements are likely to be inaccurate for a variety of reasons: incorrect technique, operator error, and environmental factors. Ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) reduces measurement error, is relatively easy to use, and yields many more BP parameters than do clinic BP measurements. The cost of equipment for ABPM ranges from $2,500 to $5,000 per monitor and from $2,000 to $3,000 for computer software. A research assistant can easily be trained to follow a standardized procedure. Researchers have used ABPM to study normal BP patterns, complications of hypertension, effects of antihypertensive drugs, and the prognosis of cardiovascular events. This article provides the nurse researcher with an introduction to this technology and an overview of information gained from ambulatory blood pressure monitoring.Journal of Nursing Measurement 01/2001; 9(1):49-59.
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ABSTRACT: To assess the role of the nitric oxide-endothelin imbalance in the development of target-organ damages (carotid intima-media thickness and left ventricular mass index) in adolescent hypertension. 125 adolescents--67 hypertensive and 58 normotensive--underwent routine anthropology (height, weight) and blood pressure measurements, and laboratory (glucose, cholesterol and triglyceride levels) testing as well as sampling blood for determination of the plasma concentrations of nitric oxide (NOx) and endothelin-1 (ET-1), followed by measurement of the carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and left ventricular mass index (LVMI). Plasma concentration of NOx was significantly lower (27.7+/-13.7 vs. 35.8+/-7.0 micromol/l, respectively, p<0.001) and ET-1 was higher (3.11+/-3.9 vs. 1.09+/-1.07 fmol/ml, respectively, p<0.001) in hypertensive adolescents than that of controls. NOx negatively, endothelin positively correlated with blood pressure values, especially with systolic BP. An inverse relationship has been found between NOx and ET-1 concentrations (r=-0.29, p<0.003). In this adolescent population body weight, systolic blood pressure and plasma ET-1 were the most important factors influencing IMT, whereas LVMI correlated with height and weight and systolic BP of the teenagers. NO/endothelin imbalance seems to play a role in the development of hypertension and target-organ damages in adolescence. Further studies are encouraged in order to clarify the pathophysiological role of NO/endothelin imbalance in adolescent hypertension.Journal of the Neurological Sciences 09/2006; 247(2):138-43. DOI:10.1016/j.jns.2006.04.007 · 2.26 Impact Factor