Obesity-Related Cardiovascular Risk Factors: Intervention Recommendations to Decrease Adolescent Obesity

Comprehensive Health Services, Kennedy Space Center, FL 32899, USA.
Journal of Pediatric Nursing (Impact Factor: 1.01). 03/2005; 20(1):3-14. DOI: 10.1016/j.pedn.2004.12.001
Source: PubMed


The incidence of adolescent obesity is increasing dramatically in the United States with associated risks of hypertension, adverse lipid profiles, and Type II diabetes. Unless reversed, this trend predicts an epidemic of adult cardiovascular disease. Interventions at home, at school, and in the community are required to empower teens to increase physical activity and to modify eating habits. This article describes assessment for obesity-related health problems as well as scientific guidelines and research-based intervention strategies to decrease obesity in adolescents.

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    • "Obesity is one of the most serious public health problems and a leading preventable cause of death worldwide.[1] Various studies have suggested that obesity per se is an independent cardiovascular risk factor, as well as predisposing to type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia.[234] "
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    ABSTRACT: Background:Obese subjects are at risk of multiple comorbidities including stroke and coronary heart disease (CHD), which is partly due to disturbances in the hemostatic system.Aims:The aims of the present study were to determine the effects of a weight-loss program on fibrinogen and fibrinolytic markers.Materials and Methods:Twenty-eight obese subjects were involved in a weight-loss program consisted of exercise and nutritional education for 12-weeks duration. Physical parameters were documented and blood specimen was tested at pre and post-intervention for fibrinogen, tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), and thrombin activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI). Paired t-test was used for statistical analysis.Results:There was a significant decline in the levels of t-PA, PAI-I, TAFI and fibrinogen following the weight-loss program (P < 0.01 for each). A significant positive correlation between tPA levels and body weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and fat-free mass were found. There was also a significant correlation betwen BMI and other blood parameters.Conclusion:Reduced fibrinogen, fibrinolytic, and physical parameters were demonstrated in obese subjects following the weight reduction program. These findings suggest the possible beneficial effects of this program on the hemostatic burden particularly on the fibrinolytic biomarkers.
    North American Journal of Medical Sciences 08/2014; 6(8):377-82. DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.139286
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    • "There are many contributors to the development of obesity, for example lack of physical activity, sedentary behaviours (e.g. television watching and easily available foods rich in energy and fat (Wabitsch, 2000; Calderon et al., 2005). This study found that older adolescent girls were less obese than other subgroups. "
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    ABSTRACT: To examine the prevalence of childhood and adolescent obesity in Taiwan and investigate the association between excess weight and physical fitness and blood pressure. Cross-sectional study. A total of 13 935 children and adolescents aged 6-18 years (boys: 7031, girls: 6904) were involved in the 1999 survey and 24 586 (boys: 12 367, girls: 12 219) were available in the 2001 survey. Weight, height, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, and health-related fitness tests (bent-leg curl-ups, sit-and-reach test and step test) were measured. The overall prevalence of obesity (including overweight) in boys was 19.8% in 1999 and 26.8% in 2001. It was lower in girls with 15.2% in 1999 and 16.5% in 2001. The normal weight group performed better (P<0.05) than the overweight/obese group in all fitness tests except in the 2001 sit-and-reach test where there were no differences between the two groups. The risk of hypertension increased nearly two times for the overweight/obese-fit group and nearly three times for the overweight/obese-unfit group compared to the normal weight-fit group (adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=1.93, 95%CI=1.514-2.451 and AOR=2.93, 95%CI=2.493-3.454, respectively). Overall, the findings demonstrated that there is an increasing trend in overweight/obesity prevalence for Taiwanese youth even in a 2-year period. The overweight/obese youngsters tend to have poorer muscular strength and cardiovascular endurance than the normal weight group. The overweight/obese and unfit group had a greater risk of hypertension than other groups. However, this risk was significantly lower if obese/overweight children had a higher than average level of cardiovascular fitness.
    European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 12/2006; 60(12):1367-75. DOI:10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602466 · 2.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although blood pressure (BP) is a frequently used variable in nursing studies, measurements are likely to be inaccurate for a variety of reasons: incorrect technique, operator error, and environmental factors. Ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) reduces measurement error, is relatively easy to use, and yields many more BP parameters than do clinic BP measurements. The cost of equipment for ABPM ranges from $2,500 to $5,000 per monitor and from $2,000 to $3,000 for computer software. A research assistant can easily be trained to follow a standardized procedure. Researchers have used ABPM to study normal BP patterns, complications of hypertension, effects of antihypertensive drugs, and the prognosis of cardiovascular events. This article provides the nurse researcher with an introduction to this technology and an overview of information gained from ambulatory blood pressure monitoring.
    Journal of Nursing Measurement 03/2001; 9(1):49-59.
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