A gender specific psychometric analysis of the early trauma inventory short form in cocaine dependent adults

Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, Substance Abuse Treatment Unit, 1 Long Wharf Drive, Box 18, New Haven, CT 06511, United States.
Addictive Behaviors (Impact Factor: 2.76). 06/2005; 30(4):847-52. DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2004.08.009
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This study evaluated the gender specific psychometric properties of the Early Trauma Inventory-Short Form (ETI-SF) in a clinical sample of cocaine dependent men (N=58) and women (N=34). Participants were administered the ETI-SF, the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire Short Form (CTQ-SF), and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I). Tests of internal consistency, convergent validity, and predictive validity were conducted separately by gender. Findings indicated that the ETI-SF demonstrated good internal consistency; Cronbach's alpha ranged from 0.73 to 0.80 for men and from 0.70 to 0.77 for women. The measure also demonstrated good convergence with the CTQ-SF in both sexes, indicating that reports of child maltreatment are consistent across interview and self-report measures. Further, predictive validity was demonstrated by the ability of various ETI-SF scales to predict the co-occurrence of psychiatric disorders commonly associated with early trauma. These included lifetime diagnosis of PTSD in men and women, the lifetime diagnosis of major depressive disorder in men, and the lifetime diagnoses of alcohol use disorders in women. The findings support the utility of the ETI-SF as a clinical research tool to obtain data on specific types of early trauma in drug abusing samples.

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Available from: Scott M Hyman, Jan 18, 2014
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    • "and test–retest reliability (Cronbach α = 0.79–0.86). The CTQ demonstrates good convergent validity with other self-report and interview measures of child maltreatment (Bernstein et al., 2003; Hyman, Garcia, Kemp, Mazure, & Sinha, 2005). The internal consistency of the CTQ measured at baseline was α = 0.76. "
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    ABSTRACT: A randomized clinical trial was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) for ethnically and racially diverse, economically disadvantaged women with major depressive disorder. Non-treatment-seeking urban women (N = 128; M age = 25.40, SD = 4.98) with infants were recruited from the community. Participants were at or below the poverty level: 59.4% were Black and 21.1% were Hispanic. Women were screened for depressive symptoms using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale; the Diagnostic Interview Schedule was used to confirm major depressive disorder diagnosis. Participants were randomized to individual IPT or enhanced community standard. Depressive symptoms were assessed before, after, and 8 months posttreatment with the Beck Depression Inventory-II and the Revised Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression. The Social Support Behaviors Scale, the Social Adjustment Scale-Self-Report, and the Perceived Stress Scale were administered to examine mediators of outcome at follow-up. Treatment effects were evaluated with a growth mixture model for randomized trials using complier-average causal effect estimation. Depressive symptoms trajectories from baseline through postintervention to follow-up showed significant decreases among the IPT group compared to the enhanced community standard group. Changes on the Perceived Stress Scale and the Social Support Behaviors Scale mediated sustained treatment outcome.
    Development and Psychopathology 11/2013; 25(4pt1):1065-1078. DOI:10.1017/S0954579413000370 · 4.89 Impact Factor
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    • "Childhood Trauma—Exposure to childhood trauma was assessed using the Early Trauma Inventory–Short Form (ETISR-SF; Bremner et al., 2007). The ETI-SF assesses General Trauma, Physical Punishment, Emotional Abuse and Sexual Events, and has strong psychometric properties (Bremner et al., 2007; Hyman et al., 2005) with good reliability for the current sample (α = .80). "
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    ABSTRACT: While childhood trauma appears to be a risk factor for the onset of depression and subclinical depressive symptomatology in Mexican Americans, the specific physiological mechanisms contributing to this relationship remain to be clarified. Stress-induced dysregulation of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) axis is associated with depressive symptomatology in non-Hispanics. The current study assessed the extent to which the cortisol awakening response (CAR) predicts subclinical depressive symptomatology beyond the influence of childhood trauma in a sample of 55 Mexican American males and females ages 18-38 years, without a diagnosis of clinical depression. Participants were assessed for exposure to early trauma and current depressive symptomatology. Salivary cortisol samples were collected on two consecutive days at awakening, 30, 45, and 60 min thereafter, and again at 3 p.m., 6 p.m. and 9 p.m. Data were analyzed using general linear models with repeated measures at four morning time points, and again, at three afternoon and evening time points. Results indicated a significant Symptoms×Time interaction for the CAR(p<0.05). The Symptom×Time interaction was not significant for afternoon and evening cortisol concentrations. Moreover, subclinical symptomatology was associated with attenuation of the initial rise in CAR, after controlling for the total frequency of exposure to childhood traumas. Hierarchical analyses show attenuation of the initial rise in the CAR was the best predictor of greater subclinical depressive symptomatology beyond the influence of trauma, and independent of a current diagnosis of major depression in a sample of adult Mexican Americans.
    Journal of Psychiatric Research 02/2011; 45(7):902-9. DOI:10.1016/j.jpsychires.2011.01.001 · 3.96 Impact Factor
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    • "It is possible, for example, that individuals who suffer from drinking problems may search their memories more thoroughly for experiences of CPP. However, previous studies have found good to excellent validity and reliability of assessment of CPP (Bremner et al., 2007; Hyman et al., 2005; Walsh et al., 2008). We attempted to address this problem by grouping people who answered " often " and " sometimes " together and those who answered " rarely " and " never " together. "
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the current study is to estimate a link between early physical punishment in childhood and later alcohol outcomes, taking family history of drinking problems into account, with epidemiological data from China. The yield from previous studies on this relationship is mixed evidence, largely traceable to research design variations, including model specifications that concern parental alcohol or other drug problems (AODPs) that might account for both earlier discipline practices and later drinking problems in the offspring. Data are from the World Mental Health Surveys-metropolitan China study, with cross-sectional representative sample surveys of adult household residents living in two metropolitan cities, Beijing and Shanghai. Participants in this general mental health survey were asked about early life experiences (e.g., parental AODP, childhood misbehavior), as well as their own drinking outcomes. Stratification was used to control for parental AODP. Logistic regressions found robust associations linking childhood physical punishment with drinking outcomes, even with stratification for parental AODP and childhood misbehavior. These results from a cross-sectional survey lay a foundation for future prospective and longitudinal research on possible causal relationships that link childhood physical punishment with later drinking outcomes in China.
    Journal of studies on alcohol and drugs 01/2010; 72(1):24-33. DOI:10.15288/jsad.2011.72.24 · 2.76 Impact Factor
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