CpG oligonucleotides induce strong humoral but only weak CD4+ T cell responses to protein antigens in rhesus macaques in vivo.
ABSTRACT Oligonucleotides containing CpG motifs (CpG ODN) are strong adjuvants for humoral immune responses but data on cellular immune responses in primates are scarce. Rhesus macaque blood contained similar numbers of plasmacytoid dendritic cells and B cells, the key sensors of CpG ODN, as human blood, and these cells were activated by CpG-A and CpG-B in vitro. In vivo, both ODNs induced equal plasma levels of interferon-inducible protein 10 and similarly enhanced antibody responses following i.m. injections of the ODNs, protein antigen, and aluminium hydroxide into rhesus macaques, whereas antigen-specific CD4(+) T cell responses were only slightly increased by CpG ODN.
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ABSTRACT: In the present study, a low molecular weight polysaccharide, ABP-AW1, isolated from Agaricus blazei Murill was assessed for its potential adjuvant activity. ABP-AW1 is considered to create a 'depot' of antigen at a subcutaneous injection site. ICR mice were immunized with 100 μg ovalbumin (OVA) alone or with 100 μg OVA formulated in 0.9% saline containing 200 μg aluminum (alum) or ABP-AW1 (50, 100 and 200 μg) on days 1 and 15. Two weeks after the secondary immunization, splenocyte proliferation, the expression of surface markers, cytokine production and the OVA-specific antibody levels in the serum were determined. The OVA/ABP-AW1 vaccine, in comparison with OVA alone, markedly increased the proliferation of splenic lymphocytes and elicited greater antigen-specific CD4(+) T cell activation, as determined by splenic CD4(+)CD69(+) T cells and Th1 cytokine interferon (IFN)-γ release. The combination of ABP-AW1 and OVA also enhanced IgG2b antibody responses to OVA. In conclusion, these data indicated that ABP-AW1 significantly enhanced the humoral and cellular immune responses against OVA in the mice, suggesting that ABP-AW1 stimulated Th1-type immunity. We suggest that ABP-AW1 may serve as a new adjuvant.Oncology letters 10/2013; 6(4):1039-1044. · 0.24 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Interferon-α (IFN-α) produced at high levels by human plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) can specifically regulate B-cell activation to Toll-like receptor (TLR) 7/8 stimulation. To explore the influence of IFN-α and pDCs on B-cell functions in vivo, studies in non-human primates that closely resemble humans in terms of TLR expression on different subsets of immune cells are valuable. Here, we performed a side-by side comparison of the response pattern between human and rhesus macaque B cells and pDCs in vitro to well-defined TLR ligands and tested whether IFN-α enhanced B-cell function comparably. We found that both human and rhesus B cells proliferated while pDCs from both species produced high levels of IFN-α in response to ligands targeting TLR7/8 and TLR9. Both human and rhesus B-cell proliferation to TLR7/8 ligand and CpG class C was significantly increased in the presence of IFN-α. Although both human and rhesus B cells produced IgM upon stimulation, only human B cells acquired high expression of CD27 associated with plasmablast formation. Instead, rhesus B-cell differentiation and IgM levels correlated to down-regulation of CD20. These data suggest that the response pattern of human and rhesus B cells and pDCs to TLR7/8 and TLR9 is similar, although some differences in the cell surface phenotype of the differentiating cells exist. A more thorough understanding of potential similarities and differences between human and rhesus cells and their response to potential vaccine components will provide important information for translating non-human primate studies into human trials.Immunology 11/2011; 134(3):257-69. · 3.71 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Biodegradable nanoparticles have been employed for vaccine delivery, frequently admixed with adjuvants. Surprisingly, there is little information on their modulation of immune responses, speculated to be negligible. We analysed the immunomodulatory capacity of alginate-coated chitosan-nanogels (Ng), on porcine and human blood dendritic cells (DCs), when applied with defined adjuvants targeting different DC subpopulations. DC maturation, cytokine production and cell migration were assessed. Ng differentially influenced the immunomodulatory characteristics of individual Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands: Pam(3)Cys-SK4-induced IL-1β was enhanced; CpG-oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG-ODN)-induced IFN-α, IL-6 and TNFα were impaired; CpG-ODN-induced CD86 and CCR7, and cell migration, were diminished - plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs) were particularly sensitive. Therein, the Ng influence on DC endocytosis of the TLR ligands was apparently a major contributory element. This demonstrates the importance of predefining the interplay between delivery vehicles and admixed immunostimulatory moieties, for ensuring appropriate immune activation and efficacious combinations.Nanomedicine: nanotechnology, biology, and medicine 01/2013; · 6.93 Impact Factor