CpG oligonucleotides induce strong humoral but only weak CD4+ T cell responses to protein antigens in rhesus macaques in vivo.
ABSTRACT Oligonucleotides containing CpG motifs (CpG ODN) are strong adjuvants for humoral immune responses but data on cellular immune responses in primates are scarce. Rhesus macaque blood contained similar numbers of plasmacytoid dendritic cells and B cells, the key sensors of CpG ODN, as human blood, and these cells were activated by CpG-A and CpG-B in vitro. In vivo, both ODNs induced equal plasma levels of interferon-inducible protein 10 and similarly enhanced antibody responses following i.m. injections of the ODNs, protein antigen, and aluminium hydroxide into rhesus macaques, whereas antigen-specific CD4(+) T cell responses were only slightly increased by CpG ODN.
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ABSTRACT: The vertebrate immune system recognizes bacterial DNA based on the presence of unmethylated CpG-dinucleotides in particular base contexts ("CpG motifs"). In contrast to mice, knowledge about CpG-mediated effects on human B cells is poor. In the present study we identify and determine an optimal human CpG motif. A phosphodiester oligonucleotide containing this motif strongly stimulated CD86, CD40, CD54, and MHC class II expression, IL-6 synthesis, and proliferation of primary human B cells. These effects required internalization of the oligonucleotide and endosomal maturation. The molecular mechanism of action of this CpG motif was associated with the sustained induction of the NF-kappaB p50/p65 heterodimer and of the transcription-factor complex AP-1. Transcription-factor activation by CpG DNA was preceded by increased phosphorylation of the stress kinases c-Jun N-terminal kinase and p38, and of activating transcription factor-2. In contrast to CpG, signaling through the B cell receptor led to activation of extracellular receptor kinase and to phosphorylation of a different isoform of c-Jun N-terminal kinase. These studies define the structure of a highly active human CpG motif and characterize its molecular mechanism of action in primary human B cells.The Journal of Immunology 02/2000; 164(2):944-53. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Distinct dendritic cell (DC) subsets have been suggested to be preprogrammed to direct either T helper cell (Th) type 1 or Th2 development, although more recently different pathogen products or stimuli have been shown to render these DCs more flexible. It is still unclear how distinct mouse DC subsets cultured from bone marrow precursors, blood, or their lymphoid tissue counterparts direct Th differentiation. We show that mouse myeloid and plasmacytoid precursor DCs (pDCs) cultured from bone marrow precursors and ex vivo splenic DC subsets can induce the development of both Th1 and Th2 effector cells depending on the dose of antigen. In general, high antigen doses induced Th1 cell development whereas low antigen doses induced Th2 cell development. Both cultured and ex vivo splenic plasmacytoid-derived DCs enhanced CD4(+) T cell proliferation and induced strong Th1 cell development when activated with the Toll-like receptor (TLR)9 ligand CpG, and not with the TLR4 ligand lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The responsiveness of plasmacytoid pDCs to CpG correlated with high TLR9 expression similarly to human plasmacytoid pDCs. Conversely, myeloid DCs generated with granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor enhanced Th1 cell development when stimulated with LPS as a result of their high level of TLR4 expression. Polarized Th1 responses resulting from high antigen dose were not additionally enhanced by stimulation of DCs by TLR ligands. Thus, the net effect of antigen dose, the state of maturation of the DCs together with the stimulation of DCs by pathogen-derived products, will determine whether a Th1 or Th2 response develops.Journal of Experimental Medicine 02/2003; 197(1):101-9. · 13.21 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are ancient microbial pattern recognition receptors highly conserved from Drosophila to humans. To investigate if subsets of human dendritic cell precursors (pre-DC), including monocytes (pre-DC1), plasmacytoid DC precursors (pre-DC2), and CD11c+ immature DCs (imDCs) are developed to recognize different microbes or microbial antigens, we studied their TLR expression and responses to microbial antigens. We demonstrate that whereas monocytes preferentially express TLR 1, 2, 4, 5, and 8, plasmacytoid pre-DC strongly express TLR 7 and 9. In accordance with these TLR expression profiles, monocytes respond to the known microbial ligands for TLR2 (peptidoglycan [PGN], lipoteichoic acid) and TLR4 (lipopolysaccharide), by producing tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-6. In contrast, plasmacytoid pre-DCs only respond to the microbial TLR9-ligand, CpG-ODNs (oligodeoxynucleotides [ODNs] containing unmethylated CpG motifs), by producing IFN-α. CD11c+ imDCs preferentially express TLR 1, 2, and 3 and respond to TLR 2-ligand PGN by producing large amounts of TNF-α, and to viral double-stranded RNA-like molecule poly I:C, by producing IFN-α and IL-12. The expression of distinct sets of TLRs and the corresponding difference in reactivity to microbial molecules among subsets of pre-DCs and imDCs support the concept that they have developed through distinct evolutionary pathways to recognize different microbial antigens.Journal of Experimental Medicine 10/2001; · 13.21 Impact Factor