Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and overweight among adults in China.
ABSTRACT The metabolic syndrome and obesity are major risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Little information exists on the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in China. We aimed to provide up-to-date estimates of the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and overweight in the general adult population in China.
We did a cross-sectional survey in a nationally representative sample of 15,540 Chinese adults aged 35-74 years in 2000-01. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to guidelines from the US National Cholesterol Education Program. Overweight was defined as body-mass index of 25.0 kg/m2 or greater.
The age-standardised prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 9.8% (95% CI 9.0-10.6) in men and 17.8% (16.6-19.0) in women. The age-standardised prevalence of overweight was 26.9% (25.7-28.1) in men and 31.1% (29.7-32.5) in women. The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and overweight was higher in northern than in southern China, and higher in urban than rural residents.
Our results indicate that a large proportion of Chinese adults have the metabolic syndrome and that overweight has become an important public health problem in China. These findings emphasise the urgent need to develop national strategies for the prevention, detection, and treatment of overweight and the metabolic syndrome, to reduce the societal burden of cardiovascular disease in China.
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ABSTRACT: Prior evidence indicates that homocysteine plays a role in the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T and methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) A66G polymorphisms are common genetic determinants of homocysteine levels. To investigate the associations of the MTHFR C677T and MTRR A66G polymorphisms with MetS, 692 Chinese Han subjects with MetS and 878 controls were recruited. The component traits of MetS and the MTHFR C677T and MTRR A66G genotypes were determined. A significant association was observed between the MTHFR 677T allele and increased risk of MetS, high fasting blood glucose, high waist circumference, and increasing number of MetS components. The MTRR A66G polymorphism was associated with an increased risk of MetS when combined with the MTHFR 677TT genotype, although there was no association found between MetS and MTRR A66G alone. Furthermore, the MTRR 66GG genotype was associated with high fasting blood glucose and triglycerides. Our data suggest that the MTHFR 677T allele may contribute to an increased risk of MetS in the northern Chinese Han population. The MTRR A66G polymorphism is not associated with MetS. However, it may exacerbate the effect of the MTHFR C677T variant alone. Further large prospective population-based studies are required to confirm our findings.International Journal of Molecular Sciences 11/2014; 15(12):21687-21702. DOI:10.3390/ijms151221687 · 2.34 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Evidence from epidemiological studies has demonstrated that a shorter or longer duration of nighttime sleep may increase the risk of metabolic syndrome. Little is known about the association between daily sleep duration, including nighttime sleep and daytime napping duration, and metabolic syndrome. We aimed to examine the association between daily sleep duration and metabolic syndrome and its components in middle-aged and older Chinese adults using data from the Dongfeng-Tongji Cohort study. A total of 25,184 participants (mean age 63.6 years) who completed the baseline questionnaire, physical examination and laboratory tests were included in this analysis. Daily sleep duration was calculated by summing up nighttime sleep duration and daytime napping duration. The metabolic syndrome was defined using the International Diabetes Federation criteria. Logistic regression models were used to investigate the association between daily sleep duration and the risk of metabolic syndrome and its components. Of the participants, 8,046 (31.9%) had metabolic syndrome. Females had a higher prevalence (38.6%) of metabolic syndrome than males (23.9%). Female participants with longer daily sleep duration (≥8 hours, all P < 0.05) per day had a higher risk of metabolic syndrome compared with those sleeping 7-7.9 hours, adjusting for potential confounders. Longer daily sleep was positively associated with individual components of metabolic syndrome except central obesity in females, and was only positively associated with HDL-C in males. Further analysis revealed that a longer duration of daytime napping (≥90 minutes, P < 0.05) was associated with the risk of metabolic syndrome in females. However, nighttime sleep duration was not associated with the risk of metabolic syndrome in either males or females. Our findings suggested that longer daytime napping duration rather than nighttime sleeping duration was associated with increased risk of metabolic syndrome in females. The findings have significant implications for further studies to explore the appropriate sleep duration for middle-aged and older adults.BMC Public Health 12/2015; 15(1):1521. DOI:10.1186/s12889-015-1521-z · 2.32 Impact Factor