The metabolic syndrome and obesity are major risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Little information exists on the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in China. We aimed to provide up-to-date estimates of the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and overweight in the general adult population in China.
We did a cross-sectional survey in a nationally representative sample of 15,540 Chinese adults aged 35-74 years in 2000-01. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to guidelines from the US National Cholesterol Education Program. Overweight was defined as body-mass index of 25.0 kg/m2 or greater.
The age-standardised prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 9.8% (95% CI 9.0-10.6) in men and 17.8% (16.6-19.0) in women. The age-standardised prevalence of overweight was 26.9% (25.7-28.1) in men and 31.1% (29.7-32.5) in women. The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and overweight was higher in northern than in southern China, and higher in urban than rural residents.
Our results indicate that a large proportion of Chinese adults have the metabolic syndrome and that overweight has become an important public health problem in China. These findings emphasise the urgent need to develop national strategies for the prevention, detection, and treatment of overweight and the metabolic syndrome, to reduce the societal burden of cardiovascular disease in China.
"In the case of a slightly elevated risk, people receive general lifestyle advice and a link to a detailed lifestyle test. It is known that people with low socio-economic status and health literacy tend to participate less in screening programmes (Bennett, Chen, Soroui, & White, 2009; Berkman, Sheridan, Donahue, Halpern, & Crotty, 2011; Dobbins, Simpson, Oldenburg, Owen, & Harris, 1998; Dryden, Williams, McCowan, & Themessl-Hube, 2012; Guerra, Krumholz, & Shea, 2005; Kobayashi, Wardle, & Von Wagner, 2014; White, Chen, & Atchison, 2008). Different reasons have been suggested, such as invitational materials being difficult to understand (Kobayashi et al., 2014). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives
To identify the barriers from the perspective of consumers with low health literacy in using risk information as provided in cardiometabolic risk assessments.DesignA qualitative thematic approach using cognitive interviews was employed.Methods
We performed interviews with 23 people with low health literacy/health numeracy, who were recruited through (1) several organisations and snowball sampling and (2) an online access panel. Participants completed the risk test of the Dutch national cardiometabolic risk assessment and viewed the personalized information about their risk. They were asked to answer probing questions about different parts of the information. The qualitative data were analysed by identifying main themes related to barriers in using the information, using a descriptive thematic approach.ResultsThe four main themes identified were as follows: (1) People did not fully accept the risk message, partly because numerical information had ambiguous meaning; (2) people lacked an adequate framework for understanding their risk; (3) the purpose and setting of the risk assessment was unclear; and (4) current information tells nothing new: A need for more specific risk information.Conclusions
The main barriers were that the current presentation seemed to provoke undervaluation of the risk number and that texts throughout the test, for example about cardiometabolic diseases, did not match people's existing knowledge, failing to provide an adequate framework for understanding cardiometabolic risk. Our findings have implications for the design of disease risk information, for example that alternative forms of communication should be explored that provide more intuitive meaning of the risk in terms of good versus bad.Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Online disease risk assessments have become widely available internationally.People with low SES and health literacy tend to participate less in health screening.Risk information is difficult to understand, yet little research has been carried out among people with low health literacy. What does this study add? People with low health literacy do not optimally use risk information in an online cardiometabolic risk assessment.The texts provided in the cardiometabolic risk assessment do not suit to their existing knowledge.The typical risk communication (numbers, bar graph, verbal label) seems to provoke undervaluation of risk.
British Journal of Health Psychology 07/2015; DOI:10.1111/bjhp.12149 · 2.70 Impact Factor
"The approximate prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in the general population and in those with schizophrenia is 15.1–23.7% (Ford et al., 2002; Gu et al., 2005) and 22.2–60.0%, (Kang et al., 2011; McEvoy et al., 2005; Sugawara et al., 2010), respectively. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Schizophrenia is a serious mental illness with chronic symptoms and significant impairment in psychosocial
functioning. Although novel antipsychotics have been developed, the negative and cognitive symptoms of
schizophrenia are still unresponsive to pharmacotherapy. The high level of social impairment and a chronic
deteriorating course suggest that schizophrenia likely has neurodegenerative characteristics.
Inflammatory markers such as pro-inflammatory cytokines are well-known etiological factors for psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia. Inflammation in the central nervous systemis closely related to neurodegeneration. In addition to pro-inflammatory cytokines, microglia also play an important role in the inflammatory process in the CNS. Uncontrolled activity of pro-inflammatory cytokines and microglia can induce schizophrenia in tandem with genetic vulnerability and glutamatergic neurotransmitters. Several studies have investigated the possible effects of antipsychotics on inflammation and neurogenesis. Additionally, anti-inflammatory adjuvant therapy has been under investigation as a treatment option for schizophrenia. Further studies should consider the confounding effects
of systemic factors such as metabolic syndrome and smoking. In addition, the unique mechanisms by which
pro-inflammatory cytokines are involved in the etiopathology of schizophrenia should be investigated. In this article,
we aimed to review(1) major findings regarding neuroinflammation and pro-inflammatory cytokine alterations in
schizophrenia, (2) interactions between neuroinflammation and neurogenesis as possible neural substrates for
schizophrenia, and (3) novel pharmacological approaches.
Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry 06/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.pnpbp.2015.06.008 · 3.69 Impact Factor
"as control variables. Previous studies report that individuals located in urban, northern or coastal regions in China tend to have higher overweight/obesity prevalence than those living in rural, southern or inner regions (Cui et al. 2010, Gu et al. 2005, Ji and Cheng 2009, Reynolds et al. 2007). Three dummy variables are used to control for regional disparities. "
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