InterASIA Collaboration Group: Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and overweight among adults in China
ABSTRACT The metabolic syndrome and obesity are major risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Little information exists on the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in China. We aimed to provide up-to-date estimates of the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and overweight in the general adult population in China.
We did a cross-sectional survey in a nationally representative sample of 15,540 Chinese adults aged 35-74 years in 2000-01. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to guidelines from the US National Cholesterol Education Program. Overweight was defined as body-mass index of 25.0 kg/m2 or greater.
The age-standardised prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 9.8% (95% CI 9.0-10.6) in men and 17.8% (16.6-19.0) in women. The age-standardised prevalence of overweight was 26.9% (25.7-28.1) in men and 31.1% (29.7-32.5) in women. The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and overweight was higher in northern than in southern China, and higher in urban than rural residents.
Our results indicate that a large proportion of Chinese adults have the metabolic syndrome and that overweight has become an important public health problem in China. These findings emphasise the urgent need to develop national strategies for the prevention, detection, and treatment of overweight and the metabolic syndrome, to reduce the societal burden of cardiovascular disease in China.
- SourceAvailable from: Olga Damman
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- "In the case of a slightly elevated risk, people receive general lifestyle advice and a link to a detailed lifestyle test. It is known that people with low socio-economic status and health literacy tend to participate less in screening programmes (Bennett, Chen, Soroui, & White, 2009; Berkman, Sheridan, Donahue, Halpern, & Crotty, 2011; Dobbins, Simpson, Oldenburg, Owen, & Harris, 1998; Dryden, Williams, McCowan, & Themessl-Hube, 2012; Guerra, Krumholz, & Shea, 2005; Kobayashi, Wardle, & Von Wagner, 2014; White, Chen, & Atchison, 2008). Different reasons have been suggested, such as invitational materials being difficult to understand (Kobayashi et al., 2014). "
ABSTRACT: Objectives To identify the barriers from the perspective of consumers with low health literacy in using risk information as provided in cardiometabolic risk assessments.DesignA qualitative thematic approach using cognitive interviews was employed.Methods We performed interviews with 23 people with low health literacy/health numeracy, who were recruited through (1) several organisations and snowball sampling and (2) an online access panel. Participants completed the risk test of the Dutch national cardiometabolic risk assessment and viewed the personalized information about their risk. They were asked to answer probing questions about different parts of the information. The qualitative data were analysed by identifying main themes related to barriers in using the information, using a descriptive thematic approach.ResultsThe four main themes identified were as follows: (1) People did not fully accept the risk message, partly because numerical information had ambiguous meaning; (2) people lacked an adequate framework for understanding their risk; (3) the purpose and setting of the risk assessment was unclear; and (4) current information tells nothing new: A need for more specific risk information.Conclusions The main barriers were that the current presentation seemed to provoke undervaluation of the risk number and that texts throughout the test, for example about cardiometabolic diseases, did not match people's existing knowledge, failing to provide an adequate framework for understanding cardiometabolic risk. Our findings have implications for the design of disease risk information, for example that alternative forms of communication should be explored that provide more intuitive meaning of the risk in terms of good versus bad.Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Online disease risk assessments have become widely available internationally.People with low SES and health literacy tend to participate less in health screening.Risk information is difficult to understand, yet little research has been carried out among people with low health literacy. What does this study add? People with low health literacy do not optimally use risk information in an online cardiometabolic risk assessment.The texts provided in the cardiometabolic risk assessment do not suit to their existing knowledge.The typical risk communication (numbers, bar graph, verbal label) seems to provoke undervaluation of risk.British Journal of Health Psychology 07/2015; DOI:10.1111/bjhp.12149 · 2.70 Impact Factor
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- "The approximate prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in the general population and in those with schizophrenia is 15.1–23.7% (Ford et al., 2002; Gu et al., 2005) and 22.2–60.0%, (Kang et al., 2011; McEvoy et al., 2005; Sugawara et al., 2010), respectively. "
ABSTRACT: Cytokines are pleiotropic molecules with important roles in inflammatory responses. Pro-inflammatory cytokines and neuroinflammation are important not only in inflammatory responses but also in neurogenesis and neuroprotection. Sustained stress and the subsequent release of pro-inflammatory cytokines lead to chronic neuroinflammation, which contributes to depression. Hippocampal glucocorticoid receptors (GR) and the associated hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis have close interactions with pro-inflammatory cytokines and neuroinflammation. Elevated pro-inflammatory cytokine levels and GR functional resistance are among the most widely investigated factors in the pathophysiology of depression. These two major components create a vicious cycle. In brief, chronic neuroinflammation inhibits GR function, which in turn exacerbates pro-inflammatory cytokine activity and aggravates chronic neuroinflammation. On the other hand, neuroinflammation causes an imbalance between oxidative stress and the antioxidant system, which is also associated with depression. Although current evidence strongly suggests that cytokines and GR have important roles in depression, they are essential components of a whole system of inflammatory and endocrine interactions, rather than playing independent parts. Despite the evidence that a dysfunctional immune and endocrine system contributes to the pathophysiology of depression, much research remains to be undertaken to clarify the cause and effect relationship between depression and neuroinflammation. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry 06/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.pnpbp.2015.06.008 · 4.03 Impact Factor
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- "as control variables. Previous studies report that individuals located in urban, northern or coastal regions in China tend to have higher overweight/obesity prevalence than those living in rural, southern or inner regions (Cui et al. 2010, Gu et al. 2005, Ji and Cheng 2009, Reynolds et al. 2007). Three dummy variables are used to control for regional disparities. "
ABSTRACT: Previous studies have widely reported that the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and childhood overweight and obesity in China is significant and positive, which lends little support to the fundamental-cause perspective. Using multiple waves (1997, 2000, 2004 and 2006) of the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) (N = 2,556, 2,063, 1,431 and 1,242, respectively) and continuous BMI cut-points obtained from a polynomial method, (mixed-effect) logistic regression analyses show that parental state-sector employment, an important, yet overlooked, indicator of political power during the market transformation has changed from a risk factor for childhood overweight/obesity in 1997 to a protective factor for childhood overweight/obesity in 2006. Results from quantile regression analyses generate the same conclusions and demonstrate that the protective effect of parental state sector employment at high percentiles of BMI is robust under different estimation strategies. By bridging the fundamental causes perspective and theories of market transformation, this research not only documents the effect of political power on childhood overweight/obesity but also calls for the use of multifaceted, culturally-relevant stratification measures in testing the fundamental cause perspective across time and space. © 2015 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness.Sociology of Health & Illness 06/2015; 37(5). DOI:10.1111/1467-9566.12234 · 1.88 Impact Factor