Inhibitory actions of endothelin-1 on pain processing.
ABSTRACT Endothelin-1 (ET-1) in the central nervous system has been suggested to produce suppressive effects on pain transmission. We investigated the manner by which ET-1 exerts this action. ET-1 administered intracerebroventricularly produced a dose-dependent antinociceptive effect in a thermal pain test that utilized a spinal reflex to determine nociceptive thresholds. This suggested that the antinociceptive effect of ET-1 involved a descending pain inhibitory system. The antinociceptive effect was blocked by an ETA receptor antagonist but not by an ETB receptor antagonist, indicating that the action was mediated through the ETA receptor. Antagonists of opioid receptors, serotonin receptors, alpha-2 adrenergic receptors, oxytocin receptors, and dopamine receptors did not block the antinociceptive effect of ET-1. Thus, major descending inhibitory systems were probably not involved. The antinociceptive effect was blocked by intracerebroventricular administration of an alpha-1 adrenergic receptor antagonist. This indicated that the antinociceptive effect involved the activation of a supraspinal noradrenergic pathway, which in turn may activate a still unknown descending pain inhibitory system.
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Article: Animal models of cancer pain.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Modern cancer therapies have significantly increased patient survival rates in both human and veterinary medicine. Since cancer patients live longer they now face new challenges resulting from severe, chronic tumor-induced pain. Unrelieved cancer pain significantly decreases the quality of life of such patients; thus the goal of pain management is to not only to alleviate pain, but also to maintain the patient's physiological and psychological well-being. The major impediment for developing new treatments for cancer pain has been our limited knowledge of the basic mechanisms that drive cancer pain and the lack of adequate animal cancer pain models to study the molecular, biochemical and neurobiological pathways that generate and maintain cancer pain. However this situation has recently changed with the recent development of several novel animal models of cancer pain. This review will focus on describing these animal models, many of them in rodents, and reviewing some of the recent information gained from the use of these models to investigate the basic mechanims that underlie the development and maintenance of cancer pain. Animal models of cancer pain can be divided into the following five categories: bone cancer pain models, non-bone cancer pain models, cancer invasion pain models, cancer chemotherapeutic-induced peripheral neuropathy models, and spontaneous occurring cancer pain models. These models will be important not only for enhancing our knowledge of how cancer pain is generated, but more importantly for the development of novel therapeutic regimes to treat cancer pain in both domestic animals and humans.Comparative medicine 07/2008; 58(3):220-33. · 1.12 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In addition to causing overt nociception, intraplantar (ipl) endothelin (ET)-1 injection into the rat hind paw induces hyperalgesia to mechanical stimuli, mediated via local ET(B) receptors coupled to protein kinase (PK) C, but not PKA. The present study further examines the intracellular signaling mechanisms underlying this effect of ET-1. ET-1 (30 pmol) or phospate-buffered saline (PBS) was injected ipl in rats and the threshold of responsiveness to mechanical stimulation was assessed repeatedly each hour up to 8 hrs and 24 hrs, using the dynamic plantar aesthesiometer test, which detects the minimal pressure required to evoke paw withdrawal. Different groups were treated, 15 mins before ET-1 administration, with ipsilateral injection of selective inhibitors of either phospholipase (PL) A2 (1 nmol PACOCF3), PLC (30 pmol U73122), PKC (1 nmol GF109203X), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK; 30 nmol SB203580), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2; 30 nmol PD98059), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK; 30 nmol SP600125), or vehicle, to assess their influence on the hyperalgesic response. The mechanical hyperalgesia caused by ET-1 started 2 hrs after injection, peaked at 5 hrs (PBS, 29 +/- 0.5 g; ET-1, 17 +/- 1.3 g) and lasted up to 8 hrs. The inhibitors of PLC, PKC, p38 MAPK, ERK1/2, and JNK caused long-lasting reductions of the mechanical hyperalgesia (inhibitions at 4 hrs of 100%, 90%, 97%, 90%, and 100%, respectively), but the PLA2 inhibitor reduced hyperalgesia only at 4 hrs (by 58%). Thus, mechanical hyperalgesia triggered by ET-1 in the rat hind paw depends importantly on signaling pathways involving PLC, PKC, p38 MAPK, ERK1/2, and JNK, whereas the contribution of PLA2 is relatively minor.Experimental Biology and Medicine 07/2006; 231(6):1141-5. · 2.80 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Endothelin-1 (ET-1) predominates in the endothelin family effectively in vascular tone control, mitogenesis, and neuromodulation. Its receptors are widespread in the central nervous system (CNS) associated with endogenous pain control, suggesting an important role of ET-1 in central pain processing. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of central ET-1 on the development of neuropathic pain behaviour by repeated intrathecal administration of endothelin type A receptor (ETAR) antagonist (BQ-123) in a sciatic nerve ligation (SNL) animal model. BQ-123 was administered intrathecally to rats at dosages 15 μ g, 20 μ g, 25 μ g, and 30 μ g, daily for 3 days. Mechanical allodynia was assessed daily 30 minutes before/after injection, 1 hour after injection of BQ-123 from post-SNL day 4 to day 6, and once on day 7 (without BQ-123 administration) before rats were sacrificed. Increasing trends of mechanical threshold were observed, and they reached significance at all dosages on post-SNL day 7 (P < 0.05 at dosage 15 μ g and P < 0.001 at dosages 20 μ g, 25 μ g, and 30 μ g) in comparison to control group. BQ-123 at dosage 30 μ g showed the most stable and significant mechanical threshold rise. Repeated central administration of BQ-123 alleviated mechanical allodynia after SNL. Our results provide insight into the therapeutic strategies, including timing, against neuropathic pain development with ETAR antagonist.BioMed research international. 01/2013; 2013:529871.