Illicit substance use, sexual risk, and HIV-positive gay and bisexual men: differences by serostatus of casual partners.
ABSTRACT To examine the use of alcohol and illicit drugs among HIV-positive gay and bisexual men and to determine substance-use-related predictors of unprotected sex with casual partners who were HIV negative, HIV positive, or whose serostatus was unknown.
Cross-sectional assessment of baseline data from a behavioral intervention.
From 1999 to 2001, we recruited 1168 HIV-positive gay and bisexual men in New York City and San Francisco and determined the prevalence of drinking and drug use, as well as the use of substances with sex. We then examined associations between substance use variables and risky sexual behaviors with casual partners by partner serostatus.
Substance use was common, and the use of "party drugs" [e.g. methamphetamine, nitrate inhalants (poppers), ketamine, and gamma hydroxybutyrate] was most often associated with sexual risk in multivariate models. Substance use before or during sex was not associated with risk with HIV-negative partners, but was associated with risk with HIV-positive and unknown-serostatus partners.
Substance use before or during sex was not associated with risk with HIV-negative partners, suggesting that disclosure by HIV-negative sexual partners of HIV-positive men may be important. Being a user of particular party drugs was associated with recent risk with HIV-negative partners. With partners whose serostatus was unknown, the use of certain party drugs and using substances in the context of sex was associated with risk, possibly as a result of reliance on assumptions of seroconcordance. This same pattern was seen for HIV-positive casual partners. These data have intervention implications for both HIV-positive and HIV-negative men.
- SourceAvailable from: Minttu M RönnThe Journal of Infectious Diseases 12/2014; 210(suppl 2):S586-S593. · 5.78 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and methamphetamine (MA) dependence are associated with neural injury preferentially involving frontostriatal circuits. Little is known, however, about how these commonly comorbid conditions impact behavioral presentations typically associated with frontal systems dysfunction. Our sample comprised 47 HIV-uninfected/MA-nondependent; 25 HIV-uninfected/MA-dependent; 36 HIV-infected/MA-nondependent; and 28 HIV-infected/MA-dependent subjects. Participants completed self-report measures of “frontal systems” behaviors, including impulsivity/disinhibition, sensation-seeking, and apathy. They also underwent comprehensive neurocognitive and neuropsychiatric assessments that allowed for detailed characterization of neurocognitive deficits and comorbid/premorbid conditions, including lifetime Mood and Substance Use Disorders, Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, and Antisocial Personality Disorder. Multivariable regression models adjusting for potential confounds (i.e., demographics and comorbid/premorbid conditions) showed that MA dependence was independently associated with increased impulsivity/disinhibition, sensation-seeking and apathy, and HIV infection with greater apathy. However, we did not see synergistic/additive effects of HIV and MA on frontal systems behaviors. Global neurocognitive impairment was relatively independent of the frontal systems behaviors, which is consistent with the view that these constructs may have relatively separable biopsychosocial underpinnings. Future research should explore whether both neurocognitive impairment and frontal systems behaviors may independently contribute to everyday functioning outcomes relevant to HIV and MA.Psychiatry Research. 01/2014; 215(1):208–216.
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ABSTRACT: Drug use poses multiple challenges to maintaining physical health among HIV-infected individuals, particularly with regard to disease progression. Few studies, however, have examined the association between the use of crystal methamphetamine ("crystal meth") and HIV disease progression specifically among HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM). Understanding this relationship among HIV-infected MSM is particularly critical because of the high rates of crystal meth use reported in the population. Associations between recent crystal meth use and poor HIV medical outcomes (viral load>200 copies/mL, CD4 count <350 cells/mm(3)) were analyzed for 2896 HIV-infected MSM enrolled in Ryan White Part A programs in the greater New York metropolitan area between November 2010 and June 2012. Crystal meth use (reported by 4%) was independently associated with unsuppressed viral load (AOR=1.8, CI=1.1-2.9) in multivariate analyses controlling for sociodemographic characteristics. There was no significant relationship between crystal meth use and low CD4 counts. To date, little research has examined how crystal meth use influences HIV medical outcomes among HIV-infected MSM. This analysis showed a significant independent association between crystal meth use and unsuppressed viral load among MSM in an HIV service population. Future studies should examine biological and psychosocial mediators, moderators and confounders of this relationship to inform intervention development for MSM crystal meth users in HIV care settings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.Drug and Alcohol Dependence 10/2014; 147. · 3.28 Impact Factor