Illicit substance use, sexual risk, and HIV-positive gay and bisexual men: differences by serostatus of casual partners.
ABSTRACT To examine the use of alcohol and illicit drugs among HIV-positive gay and bisexual men and to determine substance-use-related predictors of unprotected sex with casual partners who were HIV negative, HIV positive, or whose serostatus was unknown.
Cross-sectional assessment of baseline data from a behavioral intervention.
From 1999 to 2001, we recruited 1168 HIV-positive gay and bisexual men in New York City and San Francisco and determined the prevalence of drinking and drug use, as well as the use of substances with sex. We then examined associations between substance use variables and risky sexual behaviors with casual partners by partner serostatus.
Substance use was common, and the use of "party drugs" [e.g. methamphetamine, nitrate inhalants (poppers), ketamine, and gamma hydroxybutyrate] was most often associated with sexual risk in multivariate models. Substance use before or during sex was not associated with risk with HIV-negative partners, but was associated with risk with HIV-positive and unknown-serostatus partners.
Substance use before or during sex was not associated with risk with HIV-negative partners, suggesting that disclosure by HIV-negative sexual partners of HIV-positive men may be important. Being a user of particular party drugs was associated with recent risk with HIV-negative partners. With partners whose serostatus was unknown, the use of certain party drugs and using substances in the context of sex was associated with risk, possibly as a result of reliance on assumptions of seroconcordance. This same pattern was seen for HIV-positive casual partners. These data have intervention implications for both HIV-positive and HIV-negative men.
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Drug use poses multiple challenges to maintaining physical health among HIV-infected individuals, particularly with regard to disease progression. Few studies, however, have examined the association between the use of crystal methamphetamine ("crystal meth") and HIV disease progression specifically among HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM). Understanding this relationship among HIV-infected MSM is particularly critical because of the high rates of crystal meth use reported in the population. Associations between recent crystal meth use and poor HIV medical outcomes (viral load>200 copies/mL, CD4 count <350 cells/mm(3)) were analyzed for 2896 HIV-infected MSM enrolled in Ryan White Part A programs in the greater New York metropolitan area between November 2010 and June 2012. Crystal meth use (reported by 4%) was independently associated with unsuppressed viral load (AOR=1.8, CI=1.1-2.9) in multivariate analyses controlling for sociodemographic characteristics. There was no significant relationship between crystal meth use and low CD4 counts. To date, little research has examined how crystal meth use influences HIV medical outcomes among HIV-infected MSM. This analysis showed a significant independent association between crystal meth use and unsuppressed viral load among MSM in an HIV service population. Future studies should examine biological and psychosocial mediators, moderators and confounders of this relationship to inform intervention development for MSM crystal meth users in HIV care settings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.Drug and Alcohol Dependence 10/2014; 147. DOI:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2014.09.780 · 3.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Data on risky sexual behaviors in people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) is still scarce in some populations around the world. The purpose of this study was to assess the factors associated with the use of condoms in a representative sample of PLWHA in outpatient treatment in the city of São Paulo. Six hundred and sixty-seven HIV-positive patients (383 men and 284 women) who were being treated at eight centers participated in this study. Data were collected using a sociodemographic survey, the Beck depression and anxiety inventories, a survey of alcohol and other drugs use, the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, a sexual behavior survey, and the Sexual Risk Behavior Assessment Schedule. The majority of study participants were sexually active (almost 62% of the sample had at least one sexual partner in the last three months), and at least one-fourth engaged in unsafe sex (25.3% did not use condoms during at least one instance of anal and/or vaginal intercourse in the past three months). Multivariate logistic regression showed that engaging in unprotected sex was more likely among females (p < .001), persons with an HIV-positive partner (p < .001), and people using cannabis before sex (p = .002). These findings should stimulate health-care workers to create specific groups for women, seroconcordant couples, and cannabis users to discuss condom use, as they seem to be vulnerable groups.AIDS Care 12/2014; 27(5):1-8. DOI:10.1080/09540121.2014.986047 · 1.60 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Background. Seroadaptive behaviors are strategies employed by men who have sex with men (MSM) to reduce the transmission risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). It has been suggested that they contribute to the increasing diagnoses of sexually transmitted infections in HIV-diagnosed MSM. To understand the context in which the reemerging sexually transmitted infections appear, we developed a social epidemiological model incorporating the multiple factors influencing seroadaptive behaviors. Methods. A literature review of seroadaptive behaviors in HIV-diagnosed MSM was conducted. The literature was synthesized using a social epidemiological perspective. Results. Seroadaptive behaviors are adopted by MSM in high-income countries and are a way for HIV-diagnosed men to manage and enjoy their sexual lives. Influences are apparent at structural, community, interpersonal, and intrapersonal levels. There is little evidence of whether and when the behavior forms part of a premeditated strategy; it seems dependent on the social context and on time since HIV diagnosis. Social rules of HIV disclosure and perception of risk depend on the setting where partners are encountered. Conclusions. Seroadaptive behaviors are strongly context dependent and can reduce or increase transmission risk for different infectious diseases. Further data collection and mathematical modeling can help us explore the specific conditions in more detail.The Journal of Infectious Diseases 12/2014; 210(suppl 2):S586-S593. DOI:10.1093/infdis/jiu482 · 5.78 Impact Factor