Second-generation vaccines against leishmaniasis.

The Infectious Disease Research Institute, 1124 Columbia Street, Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98104, USA.
Trends in Parasitology (Impact Factor: 6.22). 06/2005; 21(5):244-9. DOI: 10.1016/
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Several species of Leishmania cause human diseases that range from self-healing cutaneous lesions to fatal visceral leishmaniasis, mucosal leishmaniasis and diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis. Drug resistance and toxicities associated with chemotherapy emphasize the need for a safe, effective vaccine. Studies of the immunopathogenesis and mechanisms of protective immunity define several features that should be met by an effective vaccine. The leishmaniases are unique among parasitic diseases because a single vaccine has the potential to protect against more than one species (disease) and be successful at both treating and preventing disease. In addition, several antigens have been identified and characterized that might be potential vaccine candidates. In this article, we focus on advances made with second-generation vaccines against leishmaniasis.

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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to prepare a new formula of Leishmania major (L. major) crude antigen and evaluate its effect on immune system. For this purpose L. major promastigotes were cultured, harvested, washed, and resuspended in physiologic saline and the suspensions were dispersed in five equal batches. 0.1 ml of various doses of the cocktail antigen were injected intradermaly in three groups of mice [Ninety out bred resistant mice (designated type 1 mice) and 90 Balb/c sensitive mice (designated type 2 mice) of both sexes with age of three months]; group I received antigen and a booster dose of the same antigen, group II received Leishmania antigen containing Bacillus Calmette and Guerrin (BCG), group III inoculated with antigen containing BCG and a booster dose of the same antigen, group IV remained intact, groups V and VI received solely BCG, and BCG solvent, respectively without any antigen. Delayed Type Hypersensitivity (DTH) response and spleen white pulp follicles (SWPF) status were evaluated. No significant differences among groups IV, V and VI were seen in two types of mice regarding PPD skin test, in leishmanin skin tests and spleen white pulp statue. However there was a significant difference among three groups of two mice types received the antigens in a dose dependent manner (P<0.05). The results showed that, the new formulated crude L. major antigen induced reasonable DTH immune responses in both types of mice in a dose dependent manner. It is concluded that the group I that received 100 µg/0.1 ml and 200 µg/0.1 ml antigen had high DTH for SLT and low SWPF increasing ,while low DTH and high SWPF were seen in the groups II and III that received 400 µg/0.1ml and 500 µg/0.1ml antigen (P<0.005).
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    ABSTRACT: Leishmania infantum is the obligatory intracellular parasite of mammalian macrophages and causes zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL). The presence of infected dogs as the main reservoir host of ZVL is regarded as the most important potential risk for human infection. Thus the prevention of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is essential to stop the current increase of the Mediterranean visceral leishmaniasis. Recently considerable advances in achieving protective immunization of dogs and several important attempts for achieving an effective vaccine against CVL lead to attracting the scientists trust in its important role for eradication of ZVL. This paper highlights the recent advances in vaccination against canine visceral leishmaniasis from 2007 until now.
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    ABSTRACT: Export Date: 18 October 2014
    Biosciences Biotechnology Research Asia 04/2014; 11(1):53-60. DOI:10.13005/bbra/1232


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