Prospective longitudinal associations between persistent sleep problems in childhood and anxiety and depression disorders in adulthood

Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London, London, United Kingdom.
Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology (Impact Factor: 3.09). 05/2005; 33(2):157-63. DOI: 10.1007/s10802-005-1824-0
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to examine the associations between persistent childhood sleep problems and adulthood anxiety and depression. Parents of 943 children (52% male) participating in the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study provided information on their children's sleep and internalizing problems at ages 5, 7, and 9 years. When the participants were 21 and 26 years, adult anxiety and depression were diagnosed using a standardized diagnostic interview. After controlling for childhood internalizing problems, sex, and socioeconomic status, persistent sleep problems in childhood predicted adulthood anxiety disorders (OR (95% CI) = 1.60 (1.05-2.45), p = .030) but not depressive disorders (OR (95% CI) = .99 (.63-1.56), p = .959). Persistent sleep problems in childhood may be an early risk indicator of anxiety in adulthood.

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Available from: Alice M Gregory, Aug 19, 2015
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    • "Although recent longitudinal studies report that adolescents sleep longer on average as they transition to adulthood (Maslowsky and Ozer 2014), and specifically as they transition to college (Doane et al. 2014), average sleep duration estimates are still below recommendations for this age group. Sleep problems in adolescence and young adulthood precede a variety of psychological problems, including depression, anxiety, and completed suicide (Breslau et al. 1996; Goldstein et al. 2008; Gregory et al. 2005). Psychosocial factors can also influence the development of sleep problems during adolescence (Dahl and Lewin 2002; Doane et al. 2014). "
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    ABSTRACT: Poor sleep and alterations in the stress-sensitive hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis may be mechanisms through which loneliness impacts adolescents’ well-being. Few researchers have explored whether daily variation in experiences of social connection predict day-to-day variation in sleep and HPA axis activity among adolescents navigating the college context. Using daily diary reports of social connection, objective measures of sleep (actigraphy), and naturalistic salivary assessment, the present study examined within-person associations between first-year college students’ social connection during the day and sleep that night, as well as diurnal cortisol activity the following day. The present study also explored trait-level loneliness as a moderator of these associations after adjusting for baseline loneliness assessed in high school. Seventy-one first-year college students (23 % male; M age = 18.85; 52 % non-Hispanic White) completed daily diary reports, wore a wrist-based accelerometer (actigraph watch), and provided saliva samples five times daily across three consecutive weekdays. The results from hierarchical linear models indicated that within-person increases in daily social connection were significantly associated with longer time spent in bed and more actual time asleep that night only for adolescents high on loneliness. Within-person increases in daily social connection were associated with a greater cortisol awakening response (CAR) the next day, regardless of trait loneliness. These findings illustrate that more daily social connection with others than usual may predict improved sleep quantity for lonely adolescents and a physiological index of anticipating upcoming daily demands (CAR) in general. Future intervention programs might consider including strategies focused on enhancing daily social interactions among adolescents starting college, particularly for lonely adolescents.
    Journal of Youth and Adolescence 12/2014; 44(2). DOI:10.1007/s10964-014-0244-2 · 2.72 Impact Factor
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    • "Moreover, the association between sleep problems and depression/anxiety increased with age. Gregory et al. (2005) further showed that sleep problems in childhood predicted anxiety disorders, but not depressive disorders, in adulthood. In addition, it was shown by Gregory et al. (2009) that sleep problems at age 8 predicted depression at age 10. "
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    ABSTRACT: While research has shown that sleep problems and substance use are reciprocally associated in adults, much less is known about this association in early adolescence. The main aim of the current longitudinal study was to explore bidirectional relationships between sleep problems, substance use, internalizing and externalizing problems in young adolescents. A prospective design was used incorporating two waves (approximately 1 year interval). A total of 555 young adolescents (290 females, M age = 13.96) participated in this study. All participants completed self-report measures in classrooms during regular school hours (questionnaires about sleep quality and sleep hygiene were used to measure sleep problems). The results indicated that sleep problems predicted changes in substance use, internalizing and externalizing problems over time, but problem behaviours did not predict changes in sleep problems, adjusted for gender, age and puberty. One exception was that alcohol use negatively predicted changes in sleep problems. This study suggests that sleep problems are important precursors of substance use, internalizing and externalizing problems in adolescence.
    Journal of Youth and Adolescence 11/2014; 44(2). DOI:10.1007/s10964-014-0213-9 · 2.72 Impact Factor
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    • "However , few studies have examined the association between childhood sleep difficulties and depression in later adult life. The two cohorts which have examined this association have produced conflicting results, with one reporting that childhood sleep problems were associated with an increased risk for depression in adulthood (Gregory et al., 2008) and the other a null association (Gregory et al., 2005); however, neither accounted for the effect of maternal depression or sleep difficulties. This is important, as either could be considered a potential confounder, or mediating factor, in the association between childhood sleeping difficulties and the risk of depression in adulthood (O'Connor et al., 2007). "
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    ABSTRACT: Sleeping difficulties in childhood have been associated with an increased risk of depression in adult life, but existing studies have not accounted for comorbid maternal sleeping difficulties and depression. This study aimed to determine the association between childhood sleeping difficulties and depression in adulthood after adjusting for the potential confounding influences of maternal depression and sleeping difficulties. Data from the British Cohort Study 1970, a prospective birth cohort with 30 years of follow-up (1975–2005) were used. At 5 years of age, 7437 parents of participants recorded information on whether their child had sleeping difficulties, the frequency of bed-wetting, nightmares, maternal depression and sleep difficulties. At 34 years of age, participants reported whether or not they had received medical treatment for depression in the past year. Parental reports of severe sleeping difficulties at 5 years were associated with an increased risk of depression at age 34 years [odds ratio (OR) = 1.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.2, 3.2] whereas moderate sleeping difficulties were not (OR = 1.1, 95% CI = 0.9, 1.3). In conclusion, severe sleeping problems in childhood may be associated with increased susceptibility to depression in adult life.
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