MRI-guided interstitial ultrasound thermal therapy of the prostate: a feasibility study in the canine model.
ABSTRACT The feasibility of MRI-guided interstitial ultrasound thermal therapy of the prostate was evaluated in an in vivo canine prostate model. MRI compatible, multielement interstitial ultrasound applicators were developed using 1.5 mm diameter cylindrical piezoceramic transducers (7 to 8 MHz) sectored to provide 180 degrees of angular directional heating. Two in vivo experiments were performed in canine prostate. The first using two interstitial ultrasound applicators, the second using three ultrasound applicators in conjunction with rectal and urethral cooling. In both experiments, the applicators were inserted transperineally into the prostate with the energy directed ventrally, away from the rectum. Electrical power levels of 5-17 W per element (approximately 1.6-5.4 W acoustic output power) were applied for heating periods of 18 and 48 min. Phase-sensitive gradient-echo MR imaging was used to monitor the thermal treatment in real-time on a 0.5 T interventional MRI system. Contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images and vital-stained serial tissue sections were obtained to assess thermal damage and correlate to real-time thermal contour plots and calculated thermal doses. Results from these studies indicated a large volume of ablated (nonstained) tissue within the prostate, extending 1.2 to 2.0 cm from the applicators to the periphery of the gland, with the dorsal margin of coagulation well-defined by the applicator placement and directionality. The shape of the lesions correlated well to the hypointense regions visible in the contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images, and were also in good agreement with the contours of the 52 degrees C threshold temperature and t43 > 240 min. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using directional interstitial ultrasound in conjunction with MRI thermal imaging to monitor and possibly control thermal coagulation within a targeted tissue volume while potentially protecting surrounding tissue, such as rectum, from thermal damage.
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ABSTRACT: A 3D optimization-based thermal treatment planning platform has been developed for the application of catheter-based ultrasound hyperthermia in conjunction with high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy for treating advanced pelvic tumors. Optimal selection of applied power levels to each independently controlled transducer segment can be used to conform and maximize therapeutic heating and thermal dose coverage to the target region, providing significant advantages over current hyperthermia technology and improving treatment response. Critical anatomic structures, clinical target outlines, and implant/applicator geometries were acquired from sequential multi-slice 2D images obtained from HDR treatment planning and used to reconstruct patient specific 3D biothermal models. A constrained optimization algorithm was devised and integrated within a finite element thermal solver to determine a priori the optimal applied power levels and the resulting 3D temperature distributions such that therapeutic heating is maximized within the target, while placing constraints on maximum tissue temperature and thermal exposure of surrounding non-targeted tissue. This optimizationbased treatment planning and modeling system was applied on representative cases of clinical implants for HDR treatment of cervix and prostate to evaluate the utility of this planning approach. The planning provided significant improvement in achievable temperature distributions for all cases, with substantial increase in T90 and thermal dose (CEM43T90) coverage to the hyperthermia target volume while decreasing maximum treatment temperature and reducing thermal dose exposure to surrounding non-targeted tissues and thermally sensitive rectum and bladder. This optimization based treatment planning platform with catheter-based ultrasound applicators is a useful tool that has potential to significantly improve the delivery of hyperthermia in conjunction with HDR brachytherapy. The planning platform has been extended to model thermal ablation, including the addition of temperature dependent attenuation, perfusion, and tissue damage. Pilot point control at the target boundaries was implemented to control power delivery to each transducer section, simulating an approach feasible for MR guided procedures. The computer model of thermal ablation was evaluated on representative patient anatomies to demonstrate the feasibility of using catheter-based ultrasound thermal ablation for treatment of benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer, and to assist in designing applicators and treatment delivery strategies.Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering 02/2009; · 0.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: MR-guided focused ultrasound surgery (MRgFUS) is a quickly developing technology with potential applications across a spectrum of indications traditionally within the domain of radiation oncology. Especially for applications where focal treatment is the preferred technique (for example, radiosurgery), MRgFUS has the potential to be a disruptive technology that could shift traditional patterns of care. While currently cleared in the United States for the noninvasive treatment of uterine fibroids and bone metastases, a wide range of clinical trials are currently underway, and the number of publications describing advances in MRgFUS is increasing. However, for MRgFUS to make the transition from a research curiosity to a clinical standard of care, a variety of challenges, technical, financial, clinical, and practical, must be overcome. This installment of the Vision 20∕20 series examines the current status of MRgFUS, focusing on the hurdles the technology faces before it can cross over from a research technique to a standard fixture in the clinic. It then reviews current and near-term technical developments which may overcome these hurdles and allow MRgFUS to break through into clinical practice.Medical Physics 08/2013; 40(8):080901. · 3.01 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A clinical treatment delivery platform has been developed and is being evaluated in a clinical pilot study for providing 3D controlled hyperthermia with catheter-based ultrasound applicators in conjunction with high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy. Catheter-based ultrasound applicators are capable of 3D spatial control of heating in both angle and length of the devices, with enhanced radial penetration of heating compared to other hyperthermia technologies. Interstitial and endocavity ultrasound devices have been developed specifically for applying hyperthermia within HDR brachytherapy implants during radiation therapy in the treatment of cervix and prostate. A pilot study of the combination of catheter based ultrasound with HDR brachytherapy for locally advanced prostate and cervical cancer has been initiated, and preliminary results of the performance and heating distributions are reported herein. The treatment delivery platform consists of a 32 channel RF amplifier and a 48 channel thermocouple monitoring system. Controlling software can monitor and regulate frequency and power to each transducer section as required during the procedure. Interstitial applicators consist of multiple transducer sections of 2-4 cm length × 180 deg and 3-4 cm × 360 deg. heating patterns to be inserted in specific placed 13g implant catheters. The endocavity device, designed to be inserted within a 6 mm OD plastic tandem catheter within the cervix, consists of 2-3 transducers × dual 180 or 360 deg sectors. 3D temperature based treatment planning and optimization is dovetailed to the HDR optimization based planning to best configure and position the applicators within the catheters, and to determine optimal base power levels to each transducer section. To date we have treated eight cervix implants and six prostate implants. 100 % of treatments achieved a goal of >60 min duration, with therapeutic temperatures achieved in all cases. Thermal dosimetry within the hyperthermia target volume (HTV) and clinical target volume (CTV) are reported. Catheter-based ultrasound hyperthermia with HDR appears feasible with therapeutic temperature coverage of the target volume within the prostate or cervix while sparing surrounding more sensitive regions.09/2011;