Performance monitoring in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

Department of Psychology, Vrije Universiteit, Van der Boechorststraat 1, 1081 BT, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
Psychiatry Research (Impact Factor: 2.68). 05/2005; 134(2):111-22. DOI: 10.1016/j.psychres.2005.02.005
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is associated with hyperactivity of brain structures involved in performance monitoring. It has been proposed that this pathophysiology results in the generation of inappropriate or excessive internal error signals, giving rise to the characteristic symptoms of OCD. We measured an electrophysiological correlate of performance monitoring, error-related negativity (ERN), to study whether OCD patients exhibit enhanced brain activity associated with errors and negative performance feedback. We found that OCD patients (n=16) and healthy control participants (n=16) did not differ in the amplitude of the ERN associated with errors and negative feedback in a probabilistic learning task. The discrepancy between these results and the results from previous studies is discussed.

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    ABSTRACT: Different theoretical accounts have attempted to integrate anterior cingulate cortex involvement in relation to conflict detection, error-likelihood predictions, and error monitoring. Regarding the latter, event-related potential studies have identified the feedback-related negativity (FRN) component in relation to processing feedback which indicates that a particular outcome was worse than expected. According to the conflict-monitoring theory the stimulus-locked N2 reflects pre-response conflict. Assumptions of these theories have been made on the basis of relatively simple response-mapping tasks, rather than more complex decision-making processes associated with everyday situations. The question remains whether expectancies and conflicts induced by everyday knowledge similarly affect decision-making processes. To answer this question, electroencephalogram and behavioral measurements were obtained while participants performed a simulated traffic task that varied high and low ambiguous situations at an intersection by presenting multiple varying traffic light combinations. Although feedback was kept constant for the different conditions, the tendency to cross was more pronounced for traffic light combinations that in reallife are associated with proceeding, as opposed to more ambiguous traffic light combinations not uniquely associated with a specific response. On a neurophysiological level, the stimulus-locked N2 was enhanced on trials that induced experience-based conflict and the FRN was more pronounced for negative as compared to positive feedback, but did not differ as a function of everyday expectancies related to traffic rules. The current study shows that well-learned everyday rules may influence decision-making processes in situations that are associated with the application of these rules, even if responding accordingly does not lead to the intended outcomes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
    Journal of Psychophysiology. 01/2013; 27(3):113.
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    ABSTRACT: Psychometric studies of the ERN, CRN, Pe, and Pc ERPs are increasing. Coherent integration of these results is difficult with classical test theory because the definition of error depends on the measure of reliability. This study used generalizability theory, which extends the ideas of classical test theory, as a framework for evaluating the influence of psychopathology and number of trials on dependability of measurement. Participants included 34 people meeting criteria for major depression, 29 meeting criteria for an anxiety disorder, and 319 controls. For all ERPs, within-person variance was larger than between-person variance across groups, indicating many trials are needed for adequate dependability (at least 13). Slightly fewer trials were needed to achieve adequate dependability in the control group than the pathology groups. Regions of interest had higher dependability than single sensors.
    Psychophysiology 02/2015; · 3.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) is characterized by maladaptive repetitive behaviors that persist despite feedback. Using multimodal neuroimaging, we tested the hypothesis that this behavioral rigidity reflects impaired use of behavioral outcomes (here, errors) to adaptively adjust responses. We measured both neural responses to errors and adjustments in the subsequent trial to determine whether abnormalities correlate with symptom severity. Since error processing depends on communication between the anterior and the posterior cingulate cortex, we also examined the integrity of the cingulum bundle with diffusion tensor imaging. Methods Participants performed the same antisaccade task during functional MRI and electroencephalography sessions. We measured error-related activation of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the error-related negativity (ERN). We also examined post-error adjustments, indexed by changes in activation of the default network in trials surrounding errors. Results OCD patients showed intact error-related ACC activation and ERN, but abnormal adjustments in the post- vs. pre-error trial. Relative to controls, who responded to errors by deactivating the default network, OCD patients showed increased default network activation including in the rostral ACC (rACC). Greater rACC activation in the post-error trial correlated with more severe compulsions. Patients also showed increased fractional anisotropy (FA) in the white matter underlying rACC. Conclusions Impaired use of behavioral outcomes to adaptively adjust neural responses may contribute to symptoms in OCD. The rACC locus of abnormal adjustment and relations with symptoms suggests difficulty suppressing emotional responses to aversive, unexpected events (e.g., errors). Increased structural connectivity of this paralimbic default network region may contribute to this impairment.
    NeuroImage: Clinical. 01/2014; 5.

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