The economic burden of glaucoma and ocular hypertension: implications for patient management
ABSTRACT This paper reviews the burden and economic consequences of glaucoma upon healthcare systems and patients, especially elderly patients. An extensive review of the literature was conducted, primarily using MEDLINE, but also by examining selected article reference lists, relevant websites and the proceedings of specialised conferences. All relevant articles and documents were analysed. Glaucoma is characterised by destruction of the optic nerve. It is most often a continuous, chronic eye disease and the most frequent diagnosis is primary open angle glaucoma (POAG). POAG is mostly associated with intraocular hypertension which can be delayed by medication, surgery or laser therapy. The prevalence rate of glaucoma is about 1% in the population >50 years of age. The rate increases with age and is higher in Black and Hispanic populations. Glaucoma affects more than 67 million people worldwide. Cost-of-illness studies have shown the importance of this disease, on which more than pound300 million was spent in the UK in 2002. Most of the costs (45%) were associated with direct medical costs, but direct nonmedical costs (20%) and indirect costs (35%) were also not negligible. Recent economic studies have shown a dramatic increase in the number of patients with glaucoma receiving treatment but a reduction in use of surgical procedures to treat the condition, especially as first-line therapy. The greater part of medical expenditure is now on medication, with new, more potent, better tolerated, but more costly drugs replacing older and less expensive medications. Treatment costs are directly related to the severity of disease and the number of different treatments used; they are also negatively correlated with treatment efficacy in reducing intraocular pressure. However, long-term economic benefits that may be associated with use of more potent new drugs (by delaying institutionalisation) have never been documented. Glaucoma screening has also been found not to be cost effective, although these results should be reconsidered in the light of new data.
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- "According to the review articles, the majority of total cost is derived from medications (14–55%), non-medical direct costs (20%) and indirect costs (35%; Rouland et al. 2005; Tuulonen 2009). Naturally, much of the variation in cost division can be attributed to differences in treatment protocols between countries (Tuulonen 2009). "
ABSTRACT: Introduction: Glaucoma is a progressive optic neuropathy associated with neural rim loss of the optic disc and the retinal nerve fibre layer typically causing visual field (VF) deterioration. Generally, glaucomatous lesions in the eye and in the visual field progress slowly over the years. In population-based cross-sectional studies, the percentage of unilateral or bilateral visual impairment varied between 3-12%. In screening studies, 0.03-2.4% of patients have been found to suffer visual impairment. Glaucoma has previously been associated with substantial healthcare costs and resource consumption attributable to the treatment of the disease. The disease also causes reduction in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with glaucoma. Objective and Methods: This study compares patients with diagnosed open-angle glaucoma from two geographically different regions in Finland. A total of 168 patients were examined, 85 subjects from an area with higher per patient treatment costs (Oulu) and 83 patients from a region with lower per patient treatment costs (Turku). All patients had a history of continuous glaucoma medication use for a period of 11 years. For each patient, the total direct costs from glaucoma treatment were calculated and the total amount of resource consumption was determined from registries and patient records. Each patient underwent a clinical examination with visual field assessment and fundus photography. These data were used to determine the current stage of disease for each patient. Health-related quality of life questionnaire (15D) was used in determining each patient's subjective HRQoL score. Results: When applying the current diagnostic criteria for open-angle glaucoma, a total of 40% of patients did not to display any structural or functional damage suggesting glaucoma after 11 years of continuous medical treatment and follow-up. Patients with higher glaucoma stage (worse disease) were found to have statistically higher treatment costs compared with those at lower disease stages. Resource consumption was also greater in the patients in higher glaucoma stage. Patients in the Oulu district consumed more resources, and glaucoma treatment was more expensive than in the Turku area. The total treatment cost in Oulu and Turku was 6010 € and 4452 €, respectively, for the whole 11-year period. There was no statistically significant difference in quality-of-life scores between the two areas. No difference was noted between the higher-spending and lower-spending areas in this respect. However, when the population was analysed as a whole, patients with higher glaucoma stage were found to have lower vision-based 15D scores compared with those at lower disease stages. This observation was made also at both districts independently. Conclusions: Major cost source in open-angle glaucoma treatment is medication, up to 74% of annual costs. In addition, it seems that higher resource consumption and higher treatment costs do not increase the patients' HRQoL as assessed by the 15D instrument.Acta ophthalmologica 05/2013; 91(thesis3):1-47. DOI:10.1111/aos.12141 · 2.51 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate if the Tono-Pen, Schiøtz and Perkins tonometers could be used interchangeably in general practice for measuring elevated intraocular pressure. A total of 74 eyes of 37 paediatric patients under general anaesthesia were checked with all 3 tonometers. All of the tonometers gave significantly different measurements from each other. However, with a mean difference of 1.4 mmHg and 95% limits of agreement of -5.7 to +8.6, the greatest agreement was between the Perkins and Tono-Pen tonometers. The Perkins tonometer is a hand-held variant of the Goldmann tonometer (the gold standard for intraocular pressure measures). Therefore the Tono-Pen with its ease of use and safety could be a reliable device for use in general practice.Eastern Mediterranean health journal = La revue de santé de la Méditerranée orientale = al-Majallah al-ṣiḥḥīyah li-sharq al-mutawassiṭ 11/2007; 14(6):1365-71.