Immune responses during pregnancy in heifers naturally infected with Neospora caninum with and without immunization.
ABSTRACT This study was designed to identify changes in parasite-specific immune responses that occur during vertical transmission of Neospora caninum and can be used as indicators of parasite reactivation in naturally infected heifers. Ten heifers were unimmunized and 11 immunized with killed tachyzoites. One unimmunized heifer, which aborted at week 19 of gestation, had an increase in parasite-specific antibodies, mainly IgG(2), from week 15 to week 19 and a concomitant decline in parasite-specific cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses. Eight unimmunized heifers, which had live full-term congenitally infected calves, had an increase in antibodies, mainly IgG(2), from week 21 onwards. All immunized heifers delivered live full-term congenitally infected calves, and had a bimodal increase in antibodies; primarily IgG(1) following immunization and predominantly IgG(2) from week 17 onwards. Immunized heifers had significantly greater overall mean humoral and CMI responses than unimmunized heifers. Nine uninfected control heifers and their calves were seronegative. These results indicate that reactivation of a latent infection occurred in the naturally infected heifers, regardless of their immunization status, and was associated with increased parasite-specific antibodies, mainly IgG(2).
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ABSTRACT: Bovine neosporosis has emerged as a main cause of abortion in cattle worldwide. An important question to understand the disease is why not all infected cows abort. In the present review we summarize the knowledge on markers related to the diagnosis and more importantly to the risk of abortion in the infected cow. Markers considered herein include those based on specific antibodies, antibody titers and antibody subtypes, cellular immunological markers, hormones and other proteins related to gestation. The identification of parasite molecules that are specifically identified in the aborting cows might help to understand the mechanism of parasite-associated abortion and control the disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.Research in Veterinary Science 03/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.rvsc.2015.03.022 · 1.51 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A vaccine is urgently needed to prevent cattle neosporosis. This infectious disease is caused by the parasite Neospora caninum, a complex biological system with multifaceted life cycles. An in silico vaccine discovery approach attempts to transform digital abstractions of this system into adequate knowledge to predict candidates. Researchers need current information to implement such an approach, such as understanding evasion mechanisms of the immune system, type of immune response to elicit, availability of data and prediction programs, and statistical models to analyze predictions. Taken together, an in silico approach involves assembly of an intricate jigsaw of interdisciplinary and interdependent knowledge. In this review, we focus on the approach influencing vaccine development against Neospora caninum, which can be generalized to other pathogenic apicomplexans.Trends in Parasitology 08/2014; 30(8). DOI:10.1016/j.pt.2014.06.004 · 6.22 Impact Factor