The burden of mental illness has been underestimated worldwide. Depression was the fourth leading cause of disease burden in the world in 1990 and is projected to be the second leading cause of disability by 2020. It is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States, costing billions of dollars annually in direct and indirect medical costs and losses in productivity. Patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) may experience both psychological and medical complaints, including somatic sensations or pain. Some antidepressants have been shown to treat chronic pain syndromes, but despite the variety of antidepressants available in the United States, only 65-70% of patients respond to initial antidepressant treatment. Treatments are limited by delayed onset of antidepressant effects, side effects, partial response, and treatment resistance. Duloxetine, approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of MDD, is a reuptake inhibitor at serotonergic and noradrenergic neurons and appears to have low affinity for other neurotransmitter systems. In clinical trials, duloxetine was effective for the treatment of MDD and was well tolerated. Further study is needed to compare its efficacy with that of other antidepressants, to clarify effects on somatic symptoms, and to assess potential adverse cardiovascular and sexual side effects. Duloxetine is also approved for the management of diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain and is under investigation for the treatment of stress urinary incontinence in women.
"For long term treatment of MDD duloxetine has been shown to be effective in 52 weeks non-comparator open label multicentre trial . As previous studies indicate that duloxetine may have some advantages in MDD, however there are limited numbers of studies which assess SSRIs as active comparators . These studies are lacking with data's either duo to of short duration of study or duo to of lack of standard comparator. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hypothetical model based on deficient glutamatergic neurotransmission caused by hyperactive glutamate transport in astrocytes surrounding excitatory synapses in the prefrontal cortex is examined in relation to the aetiology of schizophrenia. The model is consistent with actions of neuroleptics, such as clozapine, in animal experiments and it is strongly supported by recent findings of increased expression of glutamate transporter GLT in prefrontal cortex of patients with schizophrenia. It is proposed that mechanisms regulating glutamate transport be investigated as potential targets for novel classes of neuroactive compounds with neuroleptic characteristics. Development of new efficient techniques designed specifically for the purpose of studying rapid activity-dependent translocation of glutamate transporters and associated molecules such as Na+, K+-ATPase is essential and should be encouraged.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The synaptic actions of most neurotransmitters are inactivated by reuptake into the nerve terminals from which they are released, or by uptake into adjacent cells. A family of more than 20 transporter proteins is involved. In addition to the plasma membrane transporters, vesicular transporters in the membranes of neurotransmitter storage vesicles are responsible for maintaining vesicle stores and facilitating exocytotic neurotransmitter release. The cell membrane monoamine transporters are important targets for CNS drugs. The transporters for noradrenaline and serotonin are key targets for antidepressant drugs. Both noradrenaline-selective and serotonin-selective reuptake inhibitors are effective against major depression and a range of other psychiatric illnesses. As the newer drugs are safer in overdose than the first-generation tricyclic antidepressants, their use has greatly expanded. The dopamine transporter (DAT) is a key target for amphetamine and methylphenidate, used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Psychostimulant drugs of abuse (amphetamines and cocaine) also target DAT. The amino-acid neurotransmitters are inactivated by other families of neurotransmitter transporters, mainly located on astrocytes and other non-neural cells. Although there are many different transporters involved (four for GABA; two for glycine/D-serine; five for L-glutamate), pharmacology is less well developed in this area. So far, only one new amino-acid transporter-related drug has become available: the GABA uptake inhibitor tiagabine as a novel antiepileptic agent.
British Journal of Pharmacology (2006) 147, S82–S88. doi:10.1038/sj.bjp.0706428
British Journal of Pharmacology 02/2006; 147 Suppl 1(S1):S82-8. DOI:10.1038/sj.bjp.0706428 · 4.84 Impact Factor
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